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Let’s Master Basic Korean Sentence Structures

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How to compose proper sentence structures is one of the most important language skills you can learn, because you can’t speak or write properly without knowing how to put sentences together. In this article, we’ll teach you basic Korean sentence structure and word order so that you can write a Korean sentence or speak with local friends.

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Korean Table of Contents
  1. Overview of Word Order in Korean
  2. Basic Word Order with Subject, Verb, and Object
  3. Word Order with Prepositional Phrases
  4. Word Order with Modifiers
  5. How to Change the Sentence into a Yes-or-No Question
  6. Korean Word Order Practice
  7. How KoreanClass101 Can Help You with Your Korean Skills

1. Overview of Word Order in Korean

Improve Listening

The Korean language word order is SOV. Therefore, the default grammatical order is always subject object verb

Example:

  • 호랑이가 먹이를 먹어요

Horangiga meogireul meogeoyo.

A tiger is eating prey.

The Korean sentence structure and word order are different from those in English, which has an SVO (subject verb object) word order. The easiest way to remember the difference is that only the verb and object positions are switched. 

Let’s take a look at another example from Wikipedia

  • 내가 상자를 연다.

Naega sangjareul yeonda.

I open the box.

Congratulations! You’ve just mastered the first basic Korean sentence structure pattern, and you’re ready to learn how to construct Korean sentences. Let’s go!

A List of Subjects and Objects

2. Basic Word Order with Subject, Verb, and Object

Rule #1: Subject + Noun pattern

The first rule of Korean word order is the subject + noun pattern. Here are two tables of Korean subjects and grammar structures to help you construct Korean sentences. Once you familiarize yourself with them, you’ll be able to form Korean sentences easily.

A. Basic Vocabulary for Korean Subjects

SubjectRomanizationEnglishPoliteness
나는naneun“I am”informal
저는jeoneun“I am”formal
너는neoneun“You are”informal
당신은dangsineun“You are”formal
그는geuneun“He is”formal
그녀는geunyeoneun“She is”formal
*”He is” and “she is” are rarely used in spoken language. Try replacing the subject with a person’s name, such as 하영이는 (hayeongineun), 민경씨는 (mingyeongssineun), 영우님은 (yeongunimeun), etc.
우리는urineun“We are”informal
그들은geudeureun“They are”formal
“We are” in the formal register is rarely used in spoken language. When speaking, try saying 우리들은 (urideureun) instead.

B. Basic Grammar Structure to Remember

SubjectRomanizationEnglishPoliteness
~ 이다.~ ida.“~am”informal
~ 입니다.~ imnida.“~am”formal
(이)에요.(i)eyo.“~is”formal

When constructing the phrases above, you will always need to add a noun before. Let’s have a look at an example. 

Example:

  • 나는 학생이다. (informal/writing)

Naneun haksaengida.

I am a student.

  • 저는 학생이에요. (formal/speaking)

Jeoneun haksaengieyo.

I am a student.

Rule #2: Subject + Object + Verb pattern

The second rule of word order in Korean is the subject object verb rule we discussed at the beginning of this article. This is the default rule for how to complete a sentence. 

Example:

  • 저는 사과를 먹어요.

Jeoneun sagwareul meogeoyo.

I eat an apple.” 

Rule #3: Subject + Verb pattern

The third rule of Korean word order is the subject + verb sentence pattern. This is the easiest Korean sentence structure, and the pattern is similar to English. This SV pattern is usually used when you want to give a simple and direct answer to a question, without giving much context. For example, when someone asks “What is she doing?” you can simply answer by saying “She’s sleeping.”

Example:

  • A: 지금 앤은 뭐해?

A: Jigeum aeneun mwohae?

A: “What is Anne up to?”

  • B: 앤은 지금 요리해.

B: Aeneun jigeum yorihae.

B: “Anne is cooking now.”

Rule #4: Subject + Adjective pattern

The fourth rule of Korean word order is the subject + adjective sentence pattern, which is very similar to English. As we know, adjectives describe nouns or pronouns. 

Example:

  • 앤은 예뻐.

Aeneun yeppeo.

Anne is pretty.

  • 수업은 지루해요

Sueobeun jiruhaeyo.

The class is boring.” 

A Group of People Holding Speech Bubbles

3. Word Order with Prepositional Phrases

Now, let’s see how prepositional phrases come into Korean word order. According to Grammarly, a prepositional phrase is a group of words that contain a preposition, its object, and modifiers for that object. Let’s have a look at the ten most commonly used Korean prepositional phrases. 

1. ~ 의 앞에 (ui ap-e), “in front of” 

Rules:

1) Add only the object in front of the prepositional phrase. 

2) You can remove 의 when speaking. (e.g. 슈퍼마켓 앞에)

A. Simple SOV Sentence: 

 subject object verb

  • 강아지는 슈퍼마켓에 있어요. 

Gangajineun syupeomakese isseoyo.

The dog is at the supermarket.

B. Prepositional Phrase Example:

  • 강아지는 슈퍼마켓의 앞에 있어요. 

Gangajineun syupeomakesui ape isseoyo.

The dog is in front of the supermarket.” 

2. ~ 의 뒤에 (dwie), “behind”

Rules:

1) Add only the object in front of the prepositional phrase. 

2) You can remove 의 when speaking. (e.g. 소파 뒤에)

A. Simple SOV Sentence: 

 subject object verb

  • 강아지는 소파에 앉아있어요.

Gangajineun sopae anjaisseoyo.

The dog is sitting on the sofa.” 

B. Prepositional Phrase Example:

  • 강아지는 소파의 뒤에 앉아있어요.

Gangajineun sopaui dwie anjaisseoyo.

The dog is sitting behind the sofa.

3. ~ 의 안에 (~ui ane), “inside”

Rules:

1) Add only the object in front of the prepositional phrase. 

2) You can remove 의 when speaking. (e.g. 슈퍼마켓 뒤에)

A. Simple SOV Sentence: 

 subject object verb

  • 강아지는 슈퍼마켓에 앉아있어요.

Gangajineun syupeomakese anjaisseoyo.

The dog is sitting by the sofa.

B. Prepositional Phrase Example:

  • 강아지는 슈퍼마켓의 안에 앉아있어요.

Gangajineun syupeomakesui ane anjaisseoyo.

The dog is sitting inside the supermarket.

4. ~의 위에 (wie), “on” 

Rules:

1) Add only the object in front of the prepositional phrase. 

2) You can remove 의 when speaking. (e.g. 책상 위에)

A. Simple SOV Sentence: 

 subject object verb

  • 바나나는 책상에 있어요.

Banananeun chaeksange isseoyo.

The banana is at the table.” 

B. Prepositional Phrase Example:

  • 바나나는 책상 위에 있어요.

Banananeun chaeksangui wie isseoyo.

The banana is on the table.” 

5. ~ 밑에 (mite), “under” 

Rules:

1) Add only the object in front of the prepositional phrase. 

2) You can remove 의 when speaking. (e.g. 책상 밑에)

A. Simple SOV Sentence: 

 subject object verb

  • 바나나는 책상에 있어요.

Banananeun chaeksange isseoyo.

The banana is at the table.” 

B. Prepositional Phrase Example:

  • 바나나는 책상 밑에 있어요.

Banananeun chaeksangui wie isseoyo.

The banana is under the table.” 

6. ~ 과/와 함께 (gwa hamkke), “together with”

Rules:

1) Add only the object in front of the prepositional phrase. 

2) In spoken language, you can say 주인이랑 (juinirang) instead of 주인과 (juingwa); there’s no change in the meaning. 

A. Simple SOV Sentence: 

 subject object verb

  • 강아지는 주인과 산책해요.

Gangajineun juingwa sanchaekaeyo.

The dog walks with the owner.” 

B. Prepositional Phrase Example:

  • 강아지는 주인 함께 산책해요.

Gangajineun juingwa hamkke sanchaekaeyo.

The dog walks together with the owner.” 

7. ~에 관한 (~e gwanhan), “about” 

Rule:

1) Add only the noun in front of the prepositional phrase. 

A. Simple SV Sentence: 

 subject verb

  • 애나는 발표해요.

Aenaneun balpyohaeyo.

Anna presents.”

B. Prepositional Phrase Example:

  • 애나는  한국문화에 관한 주제로 발표해요. 

Aenaneun hangungmunhwae gwanhan jujero balpyohaeyo.

Anna presents about Korean culture.

8. ~때문에 (~ttae mune), “Because of~” 

A. Simple SV Sentence: 

 subject verb

  • 운동회가 취소되었다. 

Undonghoega chwisodoeeotda.

Sport Day is canceled.

B. Prepositional Phrase Example:

  • 운동회가  때문에 취소되었다.  

Undonghoega  bi ttaemune chwisodoeeotda. 

Sport Day is canceled because of the rain.

9. ~한테 (hante), “To someone” / “From someone” / “By someone”

A. Simple SA Sentence: 

subject + adjective

  • 이 훈련은 어려워요. 

I hullyeoneun eoryeowoyo.

This training is difficult.

B. Prepositional Phrase Example Using “TO someone”:

  • 이 훈련은 강아지한테 어려워요. 

I hullyeoneun gangajihante eoryeowoyo.

This training is difficult to (for) the dog.” 

C. Simple SOV Sentence: 

 subject object verb

  • 저는 장난감을 받았어요.

Jeoneun jangnangameul badasseoyo.

I received a toy.

D. Prepositional Phrase Example Using “FROM someone”:

  • 저는 장난감을 친구한테 받았어요.

Jeoneun i jangnangameun chinguhante badasseoyo.

I got this toy from my friend.” 

E. Simple SV Sentence: 

 subject verb

  • 강아지가 물어요.

Gangajiga mureosseoyo.

A dog bites.

F. Prepositional Phrase Example Using “BY someone”:

  • 저는 강아지한테 물렸어요. 

Jeoneun gangajihante mullyeosseoyo.

I got bitten by a dog.

10. 으로 / 로 (euro / ro), “to” [destination]

Simple SV Sentence: 

 subject verb

  • 저는 여행할 거예요

Jeoneun yeohaenghal geoyeyo.

I’m going to travel.

A. Prepositional Phrase Example:

  • 저는 프랑스 여행할 거예요. 

Jeoneun peurangseuro yeohaenggal geoyeyo.

I’ll travel to France.

Writing Down Korean Sentence Structures in a Notebook

4. Word Order with Modifiers

Descriptive verbs can become noun modifiers and describe the nouns directly. The verb acts as an adjective to modify a noun, which must follow immediately. In Korean grammar, word order with modifiers has two rules you need to remember. So, let’s take a look. 

1. General Rule #1  –  V + ~는 것 (geot)

The first rule for modifiers in Korean word order is the V + ~것 (geot) pattern, which is used to nominalize action verbs. It indicates the gerund form of a verb (e.g. X-ing).

Example:

1. 가다 (gada), “to go”

2. 가 (ga) is the verb stem

3. 가 (ga) + -는 것 (neun geot)

4. It becomes 가는 것 (ganeun geot), which means “going,” and the verb became the noun

2. General Rule #2  –  n~은 (eun) + noun 

Descriptive verbs can become noun modifiers and describe the nouns directly. The verb acts as an adjective to modify a noun, which must follow immediately. We usually translate the descriptive verb as “to be [Adjective].” Let’s have a look at an example. 

Example:

1. 작다 (jakda), “to be small”

2. 작 (verb stem ending in a consonant) + -은 (eun) becomes 작은 (jakeun), meaning “small.” 

3. 작은 + 모자 (noun) becomes 작은 모자 (jakeunmoja), meaning “a small hat.”

Note that ~은 (eun) is attached to the end of clauses that end in consonants. If there’s no consonant at the end of a clause, the rule is slightly different. 

Example:

1. 나쁘다 (nappeuda), “to be bad”

2. 나쁘 (verb stem ending without a consonant) + ~은 (eun) becomes 나쁜 (nappeun), meaning “bad.”

3. 나쁜 + 사람 (noun) becomes 나쁜 사람 (nappeunsaram), meaning “a bad person.”

Check out our lesson on Noun Modifying Particles to learn more about modifiers. 

Yes-or-no Card and a Red Box

5. How to Change the Sentence into a Yes-or-No Question

Asking questions in Korean doesn’t require a complicated sentence structure. All you need to do is raise the end of the sentence in order to form a question. 

“Dad sleeps” in Korean is 아빠는 자요 (Appaneun jayo). If you raise the end of the word 요 (yo), it becomes a yes-or-no question: 아빠는 자요↗ ? (Appaneun jayo?), meaning “Is dad asleep?” Perhaps this is the easiest Korean sentence structure we’ll learn today. 

Examples:

  • 어제 학교 갔었어요. (Eoje hakgyo gasseosseoyo.) “I went to school yesterday.” 
  • 어제 학교 갔었어요↗ ? (Eoje hakgyo gasseosseoyo?) “Did you go to school yesterday?”
  • 어제 공부했어. (Eoje gongbuhaesseo.) “I studied yesterday.” 
  • 어제 공부했어↗ ? (Eoje gongbuhaesseo?) “Did you study yesterday?” 
  • 한국어 할 수 있어요. (Hangugeo hal su isseoyo.) “I can speak Korean.” 
  • 한국어 할 수 있어요↗ ? (Hangugeo hal su isseoyo?) “Can you speak Korean?” 

You need to be able to answer “Yes” or “No” when someone asks you a question. You may already know these, but let’s review them again. 

How to Say “Yes” and “No” in Korean

KoreanRomanizationEnglishPoliteness
ye“Yes”formal
eung“Yes”informal
아니요aniyo“No”formal
아니ani“No”informal

Example:

  • 프랑스어 해↗?

Peurangseueohae?

“Can you speak French?”

  • 아니, 못해. (Ani, mothae.) “No, I can’t.”  / 응, 해. (Eung, hae.) “Yes, I can.”
A Kid Holding a Piece of Chalk in Front of a Blackboard

Let’s do some exercises

6. Korean Word Order Practice

Now that we’ve learned some basic Korean sentence structures, let’s do some practice exercises.

Question 1 

Translate a simple sentence in Korean. How do you say “I open the box” in Korean? (Hint: Check Part 1)

Question 2

How do you say “The dog is in front of the supermarket” in Korean? (Hint: Check Part 3)

1) 강아지는 슈퍼마켓의 뒤에 있어요.

2) 강아지는 슈퍼마켓의 앞에 있어요.

3) 강아지는 슈퍼마켓의 옆에 있어요.

4) 강아지는 슈퍼마켓과 함께 있어요.

5) 강아지는 슈퍼마켓의 안에 있어요.

Question 3

Write this yes-or-no question in Korean. “Did you go to school yesterday?” (Hint: Check Part 5)

A Young Lady with a Korean Flag

7. How KoreanClass101 Can Help You with Your Korean Skills

In summary, we’ve learned basic Korean sentence structures by going over four basic word order patterns, ten of the most commonly used Korean prepositional phrases, two important modifier rules, and how to form yes-or-no questions. 

Once you familiarize yourself with these Korean sentence structures, you’ll be able to write a diary in Korean and continue learning about how to form advanced sentence structures! So keep studying. Here are more pages for you to learn about Korean sentence structure. 

From KoreanClass101: 

Other Websites: 

We hope you enjoyed learning with KoreanClass101! Feel free to reach out to us in the comments section with any questions or concerns you have about Korean word order, and we’ll be glad to help!

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Korean

Your Ultimate Guide on How to Tell Time in Korean

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Telling time is part of everyday life. It’s one of the essential conversation skills you need to learn when studying a new language. 

So how do you tell time in Korean?

Today, you’re going to learn many ways to address the time, including essential vocabulary for talking about the specific time with someone. By the end of this article, you should be more knowledgeable on Korean standard time and how to say the time in Korean! Let’s get started.

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Time Phrases in Korean Table of Contents
  1. How to Ask for the Time
  2. How to Say “Hour” in Korean
  3. How to Say the Minutes in Korean
  4. Hours Divided into Minutes
  5. General Time Reference of the Day
  6. Time Adverbs in Korean
  7. Bonus: Time Proverbs and Sayings
  8. How KoreanClass101 Can Help You with Korean

1. How to Ask for the Time

Time

1- 몇 시예요? (Myeot si-yeyo?)

몇 시예요? (Myeot si-yeyo?) literally means “What time is it?” 

몇 (myeot) means “how many” or “which number,” and 시 (si) means “o’clock” or “time.” 

So 몇 시 (myeot si) plus 예요 (yeyo), which means “it is,” becomes 몇 시예요? (Myeot si-yeyo?) or “What time is it?”

Example

  • 지금 몇 시예요? 

Jigeum myeot siyeyo?

“What time is it now?”

*The first word, 지금 (jigeum), means “now.”

2- ~는 몇 시에 있어요? (~neun myeot sie isseoyo?)

You can use this phrase when you want to ask a question about when a specific thing will happen, such as the departure time of a bus or airplane. In order to ask, you say ~는 몇 시에 있어요? (~neun myeot sie isseoyo?), which means “What time is ~?” Simply add a noun to the front to ask the question. 

Examples

  • 버스는 몇 시에 있어요?

Beoseu-neun myeot si-e isseoyo?

“What time is there a bus?”

  • 기차는 몇 시에 있어요?

Gicha-neun myeot si-e isseoyo?

“What time is there a train?”

3- 몇 시에 ~? (myeot sie ~?)

If you want to know what time to meet someone or what time you’ll be doing something, you can put the verb indicating the action after saying 몇시에 (myeot si-e), meaning “at what time.” 

Examples

  • 몇 시에 만나요?

Myeot sie mannayo?

“What time will (we) meet?”

  • 몇 시에 먹어요?

Myeot sie meogeoyo?

“What time will (we) eat?”

  • 몇 시에 가요?

Myeot sie gayo?

“What time will (we) go?”

A Close-up Shot of a Watch

2. How to Say “Hour” in Korean

In Korea, Korean people tend to give the time using the twelve-hour clock, especially when speaking. However, it really depends on the person. Some may prefer to use the twenty-four-hour clock instead.

1- ~시예요. (~siyeyo.)

To say that “It’s ten o’clock” in Korean, the rule is very simple. Add the number, in this case 열 (yeol) which means “ten,” followed by 시 (si) which means “o’clock” and 입니다 (imnida) which means “it is.” So the whole sentence becomes 열시 입니다 (yeolsi imnida).

Have a look at the table below to practice the hours in Korean. 

2- Hours in Korean

*Click on each Korean word to practice the pronunciation!

KoreanRomanizationEnglish
한 시hansi1 o’clock
두 시dusi2 o’clock
세 시sesi3 o’clock
네 시nesi4 o’clock
다섯 시daseotsi5 o’clock
여섯 시yeoseotsi6 o’clock
일곱 시ilgopsi7 o’clock
여덟 시yeodeolsi8 o’clock
아홉 시ahopsi9 o’clock
열 시yeolsi10 o’clock
열한 시yeolhansi11 o’clock
열두 시yeoldusi12 o’clock

Check out 한국 숫자 (hanguk sutja) on KoreanClass101 to practice numbers in Korean. 

Examples

  • 지금 몇시에요?

Jigeum myeotsieyo?

“What time is it now?”

  • 지금은 12시예요. (formal – speaking)

Jigeumeun yeoldusiyeyo.

“It’s 12 o’clock.”

  • 지금은 12시입니다. (formal – writing)

Jigeumeun yeoldusiimnida.

“It’s 12 o’clock.”

  • 지금은 12시야. (casual – speaking)

Jigeumeun yeoldusiya.

“It’s 12 o’clock.”

3. How to Say the Minutes in Korean

Improve Listening

1- ~ 시 ~ 분 (~ si ~ bun)

“Minute(s)” is 분 (bun) in Korean. When you want to write “how many minutes” in Korean, it’s 몇분 (myeotbun). 

Let’s have a look at a number of examples: 

KoreanRomanizationTranslation
5분 (오분)5bun (obun)“Five minutes”
10분 (십분)10bun (sipbun)“Ten minutes”
20분 (이십분)20bun (isipbun)“Twenty minutes”
35분 (삼십오분)35bun (samsibobun)“Thirty-five minutes”
42분 (사십이분)42bun (sasibibun)“Forty-two minutes”
51분 (오십일분)51bun (osibilbun)“Fifty-one minutes”
59분 (오십구분)59bun (osipgubun)“Fifty-nine minutes”

Example

  • 지금 몇시에요? 

Jigeum myeotsieyo?

“What time is it now?”

  • 열시 사십오분이예요. 

Yeolsi sasibobuniyeyo.

“It’s 10:45.”

4. Hours Divided into Minutes

When learning how to read time in Korean, it’s important that you know how to talk about the minutes past the hour. Here are a couple of the most common time phrases in Korean for this.

1- ~분 전 (~bun jeon)

전 (jeon) means “ago.” To say “thirty minutes ago,” as you may have already guessed, you would write this as 30분 전 (samsipbun jeon). Let’s have a look at more examples below. 

Examples

  • 삼십분 전에 일어났어요. 

Samsipbun jeone ireonasseoyo.

“I woke up thirty minutes ago.”

  • 어? 지민이 한 이십 분 전에 나갔는데요? 

Eo? Jimini han isip bun jeone naganneundeyo?

“Ah? Jimin left (the house) about twenty minutes ago.”

  • 십오분 전

sibobun jeon

“Twenty-five minutes ago”

2- ~분 후 (~bun hu)

후 (hu) means “after.” To say “after thirty minutes,” you would write it as 30분 후 (samsipbun hu). Let’s have a look at more examples below. Keep in mind that ~분 뒤 (~bun dwi) is frequently used in speaking as well. 

Examples

  • 삼십분 후에 전화할께.

samsipbun hue jeonhwahalkke.

“I will give you a call after thirty minutes.”

  • 10분뒤에 좀 쉬자. 

sipbundwie jom swija.

“Let’s take a rest after ten minutes.” 

A Landscape of Nature

5. General Time Reference of the Day

1- 오전 / 오후 (ojeon / ohu)

Meaning

  • 오전 (ojeon) means “morning.”
  • 오후 (ohu) means “afternoon.” 

Examples

  • 나 오전 내내 집에만 있었어.

Na ojeon naenae jibeman isseosseo.

“I stayed home all morning.”

  • 다음 주 월요일 오후에 시간 돼? 저녁이라도 같이 먹자.

Daeum ju wollyoil ohue sigan dwae? Jeonyeogirado gachi meokja.

“Are you free next Monday afternoon? Let’s grab something to eat.”

2- 아침 / 저녁 (achim / jeonyeok)

Meaning

  • 아침 (achim) means “morning.”
  • 저녁 (jeonyeok)  means “evening.”

Examples

  • 아침부터 계속 비가 오고 있네.

Achimbuteo gyesok biga ogo inne.

“It has been raining since morning.”

  • 미안, 오늘 저녁 늦게까지 일해야해.

Mian, oneul jeonyeok neutgekkaji ilhaeyahae.

“Sorry, I have to work late this evening.”

3- 오전 (ojeon) Vs. 아침 (achim) & 오후 (ohu) Vs. 저녁 (jeonyeok)

I’m sure you’re confused by these word pairs. They both have the same meaning, “morning,” but 아침 (achim) refers to early morning, such as when you’re going to work or having breakfast. 오전 (ojeon) includes early morning until noon. 

Examples

  • 매일 아침 일찍 일어나서 운동하고 있어요. 

Maeil achim iljjik ireonaseo undonghago isseoyo.

“I wake early in the morning and try exercising everyday.”

  • 이 리포트를 오전까지 학교로 내야해요. 

I ripoteureul ojeonkkaji hakgyoro naeyahaeyo.

“I have to submit this report in the morning (before 12pm).”

The difference between the second pair of words is similar to the explanation above. They both have the same translation in English, but the meanings are slightly different. 오후 (ohu) usually refers to the time between noon (we say this as jeongo in Korean) until five or six o’clock in the afternoon. 저녁 (jeonyeok) usually refers to late evening, such as the time when you have dinner, and it usually starts at about seven o’clock in the evening. 

Examples

  • 미안, 우리 몇 시에 만나기로 했지? 오후 3시였나?

Mian, uri myeot sie mannagiro haetji? ohu 3siyeonna?

“Sorry, what time were we supposed to meet today? Was it 15:00?”

  • 내일 저녁에 같이 밥먹을래?

Naeil jeonyeoge gachi bammeogeullae?

“Are you free for dinner tomorrow evening?”

4- 밤 / 새벽 (bam / saebyeok)

Meaning

  • 밤 (bam) means “evening.”
  • 새벽 (saebyeok) means “dawn.”

Examples

  • 어제 밤에 2시간밖에 못 자서 너무 피곤해.

Eoje bame 2siganbakke mot jaseo neomu pigonhae.

“I slept for only two hours last night so I feel tired.”

  • 잠이 안와서 새벽 4시까지 깨어 있었어.

Jami anwaseo saebyeok nesikkaji kkaeeo isseosseo.

“I couldn’t sleep so I stayed up until 4:00 a.m.”

5- 정오 / 자정 (jeongo / jajeong)

Meaning

  • 정오 (jeongo) means “at noon.”
  • 자정 (jajeong) means “at midnight.”

Examples

  • 정오까지 일을 끝내보도록 하겠습니다. (formal – writing) 

Jeongokkaji ireul kkeunnaebodorok hagetseumnida.

“I will try to finish the work by noon.”

  • 자정이 지나면 기본요금이 1,000원입니다.

Jajeongi jinamyeon gibonyogeumi cheonwonimnida.

“After midnight, the basic fare is 1,000won.”

6- 밤 (bam) Vs. 저녁 (jeonyeok)

Let’s have a look at the difference between these two. (bam) is after sunset and before sunrise, so it refers to night time. 저녁 (jeonyeok) refers to the evening and dinnertime. 

Examples

  • 밤에도  철수는 일을 해. 

Bamedo  cheolsuneun ireul hae.

“Cheolsu works in the evening.”

  • 오늘 저녁까지 꼭 숙제를 끝내야해.

Oneul jeonyeokkkaji kkok sukjereul kkeunnaeyahae.

“I have to finish the homework before this evening.” 

An Hourglass

6. Time Adverbs in Korean

1- 지금 (jigeum)

Meaning

  • 지금 (jigeum) means “currently” in English.
  • It also means “right now” in English.

Examples

  • 모든 옵션들이 지금 이용 가능해요.

modeun opsyeondeuri jigeum iyong ganeunghaeyo.

“All the options are currently available.”

  • 현재 공사 중

hyeonjae gongsa jung

“currently under construction”

2- 전에 (jeone)

Meaning

  • 전에 (jeone) means “before” in English.

Examples

  • 점심 시간 전에 올께요. 

jeomsim sigan jeone olkkeyo.

“I will come back before lunch.”

  • 지현이는 1년 전부터 거기에 살고 있어. 

jihyeonineun illyeon jeonbuteo geogie salgo isseo.

“Jihyeon’s lived there since one year ago.”

3- 후에 (hue

Meaning

  • 후에 (hue) means “after” in English.

Example

  • 점심 식사 후에 미팅이 있어서 바로 회사로 들어가야해.

jeomsim siksa hue mitingi isseoseo baro hoesaro deureogayahae.

“I have to return to work because I have a meeting after lunch.”

4- ~에 (~e)

The particle -에 (-e) can be translated into English as “at,” “to,” “on,” or “in,” depending on the context. It can be used to indicate time, direction, or a specific location where an action takes place. In this specific lesson, it’s used to indicate time and can be translated as “at,” “on,” or “in,” depending on the context.

This particle can be used to indicate the time at which an action takes place, and is attached to time-specific words (e.g. time, day of the week, date, month, and year). 

Examples

  • 두 시 반에 끝나요.

Du si ban-e kkeunnayo. 

“It ends at two thirty.”

  • 월요일에 학교에 안 갑니다. 

Woryoil-e hakgyo-e an gamnida.

“I don’t go to school on Monday.”

5- ~하다 (~hada

하다 (hada) is a very flexible and important verb in Korean. It’s generally translated as “to do,” but sometimes there’s a need to interpret it according to specific circumstances. 하다 (hada) verbs can be used as follows:

Examples

  • 숙제를 하다.

Sukje-reul hada.

“do homework”

  • 공부하다.

Gongbuhada.

“to study” 

  • 무서워 하다.

Museowo hada.

“to be afraid”

7. Bonus: Time Proverbs and Sayings

Here are some common time expressions in Korean to help you sound like a native! 

  • 시간이 약이다.

Sigani yagida.

“Time heals all wounds.”

  • 시간은 돈이다.

Siganeun donida.

“Time is money.”

  • 일찍 일어나는 새가 벌레를 잡는다.

Iljjik ireonaneun saega beollereul jamneunda.

“The early bird catches the worm.”

Hwaseong Fortress

8. How KoreanClass101 Can Help You with Korean

Basic Questions

By now, you should be able to read and say time in Korean! Practice makes perfect, so check out our free vocabulary list “Talking about Time” on KoreanClass101 to expand your vocabulary skills. 

Also, can you say what time it is in Korea? Drop us a comment below with your answer. Check out Korean standard time and give it a try! Lastly, can you answer the following questions? 

  • 몇 시에 아침을 먹어요? 

Myeot sie achimeul meogeoyo?

  • 몇 시에 퇴근해요?

Myeot sie toegeunhaeyo?

Find the translations here and try answering these questions in Korean. Good luck! 

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Time Phrases in Korean

Giving Directions in Korean: Learn Korean Direction Words



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Knowing how to say left and right in Korean isn’t good enough if you want to really get around Korea. Let’s learn how to give directions in Korean with KoreanClass101!

Have you ever gotten lost in an unfamiliar city? In your own country, you can simply get in a taxi or ask someone for directions. But what would you do if this happens to you in a foreign country?

Many Koreans can speak English, but this doesn’t mean that everyone speaks English fluently like you do. Therefore, it’s important to learn some basic phrases and words for directions so that when you’re not sure where you are in Korea, you can easily converse with locals in their native language.

Don’t be afraid to make mistakes when practicing, because this is just a part of learning the language. Koreans will appreciate that you speak their language and they’ll definitely help you find the way.

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Around Town in Korean
Table of Contents
  1. On the Map
  2. On the Road (10 Basic Opposites)
  3. Directions in Korea Using Landmarks
  4. Must-Know Phrases for Asking for Directions
  5. Must-Know Phrases for Giving Directions
  6. How KoreanClass101 Can Help You with Korean

1. On the Map


Directions

1. Cardinal Directions in Korean

KoreanRomanizationEnglish
(쪽)dong(jjok)East
(쪽)seo(jjok)West
(쪽)nam(jjok)South
(쪽)buk(jjok)North


2. Cardinal Direction Combinations

When you want to describe the location precisely, you can combine the four words above. For example, if you want to say “southwest,” combie 서 (seo) and 남 (nam) together, followed by 쪽 (jjok) which means “side/way.”

Examples

  • 북서쪽 bukseojjok
    “Northwest side”

  • 남동쪽 namdongjjok
    “Southeast side”

3. Talking about Directions

  • [시티]은/는 [나라]의 [방향]에 위치해있다.
    [Siti]eun/neun [nara]ui [banghyang]e wichihaeitda.
    “[City] is in the [direction] part of Korea.”

Examples

  • 부산은 한국의 남쪽에 위치해있다.
    Busaneun hangugui namjjoge wichihaeitda.
    “Busan is in the south(ern) part of Korea.”

  • 서울은 한국의 중서부에 위치해있다.
    Seoureun hangugui jungseobue wichihaeitda.
    “Seoul is in the midwest(ern) part of Korea.”

2. On the Road (10 Basic Opposites)


If you need to give or receive driving directions in Korean, here are some basic opposites you should know!

1.앞 (ap ) ↔ 뒤 (dwi)


A- Meaning

  • (ap) “front”
  • (dwi) “back”

B- Examples

  • 아파트는 슈퍼 앞에 있어요.
    Apateuneun syupeo ape isseoyo.
    “The apartment is in front of the supermarket.”

  • 아파트는 병원 뒤에 있어요.
    Apateuneun byeongwon dwie isseoyo.
    “The apartment is at the back of (behind) the hospital.”

2. 오른쪽 (oreunjjok) ↔ 왼쪽 (oenjjok)


A- Meaning


There are two ways to say “right” and “left” in Korean. 오른쪽 (oreunjjok) / 왼쪽 (oenjjok) and 우회전 (uhoejeon) / 좌회전 (jwahoejeon). The meanings are exactly the same.

B- Examples

  • 오른쪽에 보이는 저 건물이 우리 학교야.
    Oreunjjoge boineun jeo geonmuri uri hakgyoya.
    “That building that you see to the right is my school.”

  • 저기 횡단보도에서 오른쪽으로 돌아주세요.
    Jeogi hoengdanbodoeseo oreunjjogeuro dorajuseyo.
    “Please turn to the right at that pedestrian road.”

3. 우회전 (uhoejeon) ↔ 좌회전 (jwahoejeon)


A- Meaning


우회전 (uhoejeon) and 좌회전 (jwahoejeon) are the same as 오른쪽 (oreunjjok) and 왼쪽 (oenjjok), respectively. Taxi drivers use these two words a lot, so it’s important to memorize them. Knowing taxi directions in Korean is essential if you want to get anywhere!

B- Examples

  • 두 번째 신호등에서 우회전해주세요. (formal)
    Du beonjjae sinhodeungeseo uhoejeonhaejuseyo.
    “Please turn right at the second traffic light.”

  • = 두 번째 신호등에서 오른쪽으로 가주세요. (formal)
    Du beonjjae sinhodeungeseo oreunjjogeuro gajuseyo.
    “Please turn right at the second traffic light.”

  • 다음 교차로에서 좌회전해주세요. (formal)
    Daeum gyocharoeseo jwahoejeonhaejuseyo.
    “Please make a left at the next intersection.”

  • = 다음 교차로에서 왼쪽으로 가주세요. (formal)
    Daeum gyocharoeseo oenjjogeuro gajuseyo.
    “Please make a left at the next intersection.”

4. 가깝다 (gakkapda) ↔ 멀다 (meolda)


A- Meanings


B- Examples

  • 여기서 가장 가까운 지하철역은 어디입니까? (formal)
    Yeogiseo gajang gakkaun jihacheollyeogeun eodiimnikka?
    “Where is the nearest subway station from here?”

  • 강남역에서 역삼역까지는 멀지 않아요. (formal)
    Gangnamyeogeseo yeoksamyeokkkajineun meolji anayo.
    “It’s not far from Gangnam Station to Yeoksam Station.”

5. 바로 앞에 (baro ape) ↔ 바로 뒤에 (baro dwie)


A- Meanings

  • 바로 앞에 (baro ape) “right in front”
  • 바로 뒤에 (baro dwie) “right behind”

B- Examples

  • 기사님, 저기 바로 앞에 세워주세요. (formal)
    Gisanim, jeogi baro ape sewojuseyo.
    “Driver, please pull up in front of there.”

  • 기사님, 저기 슈퍼 바로 뒤에서 세워주세요. (formal)
    Gisanim, jeogi syupeo baro dwieseo sewojuseyo.
    “Driver, please pull up right behind the supermarket.”

Buildings in Korea

3. Directions in Korea Using Landmarks


1. 공항 (gonghang) “airport”

  • Not sure which Korean airport to go to? Check out a handy list of airports in South Korea.

  • Examples

    • A: 아저씨, 인천공항으로 가주세요.
      A: Ajeossi, incheongonghangeuro gajuseyo.
      A: “Please go to Incheon Airport.”

    • B: 국내선이이요, 국제선이요?
      B: Gungnaeseoniiyo, gukjeseoniyo?
      B: “To the domestic or international terminal?”

    • A: 국제선으로 가주세요.
      A: Gukjeseoneuro gajuseyo.
      A: “To the international terminal.”

    2. 전철역 (jeoncheollyeok) “subway station”


    Examples

    • A: 여기서 이수역까지 가려면 어떻게 가면 되나요?
      A: Yeogiseo isuyeokkkaji garyeomyeon eotteoke gamyeon doenayo?
      A: “How do I go to Isu Yeok from here?”

    • B: 2호선 타고 4정거장 가면돼요.
      B: Ihoseon tago 4jeonggeojang gamyeondwaeyo.
      B: “Just take the number 2 line and go 4 stops.”

    3. 공원 (gongwon) “the park”


    Examples

    • A: 한강공원에서 할수 있는게 뭐있을까?
      A: Hanganggongwoneseo halsu inneunge mwoisseulkka?
      A: “What kind of activities can we do at Hangang Park?”

    • B: 자전거 빌려서 한바퀴 돌 수 있는데, 해볼래?
      B: Jajeongeo billyeoseo hanbakwi dol su inneunde, haebollae?
      B: “You can rent a bicycle and cycle around the park. Do you want to try?”

    4. 호텔 (hotel) “hotel”

    • Here are some more words related to accommodation:
      • 여관 (yeogwan) — “inn”
      • 게스트하우스 (geseuteuhauseu) — “guest house”
      • 에어비엔비 (eeobienbi) — “Airbnb”

    Examples

    • A: 어디로 갈까요?
      A: Eodiro galkkayo?
      A: “Where do you want to go?”

    • B: 신라호텔로 가주세요.
      B: Sillahotello gajuseyo.
      B: “Please take me to Silla Hotel.”

    • A: 네.
      A: Ne.
      A: “Okay.”

    5. 병원 (byeongwon) “hospital”

    Examples

    • A: 영어가능한 병원으로 가고 싶은데, 어디가 좋을까요?
      A: Yeongeoganeunghan byeongwoneuro gago sipeunde, eodiga joeulkkayo?
      A: “I’d like to go to an English-speaking hospital. Do you know any places?”

    • B: 순천향대학병원이 좋아요. 통역사가 많이 일하고 있거든요.
      B: Suncheonhyangdaehakbyeongwoni joayo. Tongyeoksaga mani ilhago itgeodeunyo.
      B: “I recommend Soonchunhyang University Hospital. There are many interpreters working there.”

    6. 은행 (eunhaeng) “bank”

    • “To withdraw money” is 돈(을) 뽑다 (don(eul) ppopda). This phrase is often used, so it’s good to memorize it.

    Examples

    • A: 돈 좀 뽑고 싶은데 은행이 어디에 있지?
      A: Don jom ppopgo sipeunde eunhaengi eodie itji?
      A: “I want to withdraw some money. Where is the bank?”

    • B: 아, 저 횡단보도 앞에 바로 있네, 가자!
      B: A, jeo hoengdanbodo ape baro inne, gaja!
      B: “Ah, there is one right in front of the pedestrian road. Let’s go!”

    7. 쇼핑몰 (syopingmol) “shopping mall”

    • In Korea, if you pay with cash, you’ll receive a greater discount than you will by paying with a credit card. This is true for places such as 지하상가 (jihasangga), or the “underground shopping mall.”

    • If you go to a department store, or many other shops, they offer tax-free shopping.

    Examples

    • A: 쇼핑몰 어디로 가면 좋을까?
      A: Syopingmol eodiro gamyeon joeulkka?
      A: “Which shopping mall should we go to?”

    • B: 동대문? 홍대? 아니면 명동이지 않을까?
      B: Dongdaemun? Hongdae? animyeon Myeongdongiji aneulkka?
      B: “We should go to either Dongdaemoon, Hongdae, or Myeongdong?”

    8. 지하상가 (jihasangga) “underground shopping mall”

    • You can buy a lot of stuff here, such as clothing, accessories, colored lenses, and so on, for a cheap price. However, these shops don’t offer tax-free shopping, and oftentimes they’ll charge ten percent more if you use a credit card. So do carry some cash with you if you want to go.

    Examples

    • A: 현금가 1만원이라는 뜻이 뭐야?
      A: Hyeongeumga ilmanwoniraneun tteusi mwoya?
      A: “What does it mean by “Cash price 10,000 won?”

    • B: 아, 현금으로 내면 1만원이고, 카드로 내면 돈 몇천원 더 내야한다는 뜻이야.
      B: A, hyeongeumeuro naemyeon ilmanwonigo, kadeuro naemyeon don myeotcheonwon deo naeyahandaneun tteusiya.
      B: “That means if you pay by cash, it cost 10,000 won, but there will be a sub-charge if you pay by credit card.”

    9. 육교 (yukgyo) “a pedestrian bridge”


    Examples

    • A: 육교로 건너가서 택시 타자.
      A: Yukgyoro geonneogaseo taeksi taja.
      A: “Let’s cross the road by the pedestrian bridge and catch a taxi.”

    10. On a Road


    1. 교차로 (gyocharo) “intersection”

    • There are many kinds of intersections in Korea. Check out this page to see the list.

    Examples
    • 차들은 다른 방향으로 들어 가기 위해 교차로로 갑니다.
      Chadeureun dareun banghyangeuro deureo gagi wihae gyocharoro gamnida.
      “Cars enter the intersection to change directions.”

    2. 횡단보도 (hoengdanbodo) “pedestrian crossing”


    Examples
    • 횡단보도에서 내려 주실래요?
      Hoengdanbodoeseo naeryeo jusillaeyo?
      “Can you pull over at the crosswalk?”

    3. 신호등 (sinhodeung) “traffic light”

    • Be careful when you cross the road in Korea. Many drivers ignore the traffic light, and they don’t slow down when the light turns yellow on its way to red.

    Examples
    • 한국에는 신호등을 무시하고 운전하는 택시운전사가 많아요.
      Hangugeneun sinhodeungeul musihago unjeonhaneun taeksiunjeonsaga manayo.
      “There are many taxi drivers who ignore the traffic light and continue driving in Korea.”

    4. 주유소 (juyuso) “gas station”

    • “Top it up” is 만땅이요 (manttangiyo) in Korean. This phrase is only used when you’re at a gas station.

    Examples
    • 주유소를 찾고 있는데요, 어디에 있나요?
      Juyusoreul chatgo inneundeyo, eodie innayo?
      “I’m looking for a gas station. Where is it?”

    5. 휴게소 (hyugaeso) “rest area”


    Examples
    • 운전 좀 했더니 피곤하네. 휴게소에 들러서 뭐 좀 먹고 가자.
      Unjeon jom haetdeoni pigonhane. hyugesoe deulleoseo mwo jom meokgo gaja.
      “I feel tired after driving for awhile. Let’s have a bite to eat at the rest area.”

    6. 차선 (chaseon) “lane”


    Examples
    • 차선이 이렇게 아무리 많아도 교통체증이 심하네.
      Chaseoni ireoke amuri manado gyotongchejeungi simhane.
      “There are so many lanes, but still so much traffic.”

    11. In a Structure/Building


    Here’s a list of additional vocabulary for you to memorize.

    KoreanRomanizationEnglish
    화장실hwajangsilrestroom
    엘리베이터ellibeiteoelevator
    게이트geiteugate
    주차장juchajangparking area
    비상구bisangguemergency exit
    [이름] 빌딩[ireum] bilding[name] building
    미팅룸mitingnummeeting room
    수영장suyeongjangswimming pool


    Street Signs

    4. Must-Know Phrases for Asking for Directions


    Asking Directions

    Now that we’ve looked at essential vocabulary, let’s practice asking for directions in Korean!

    1. Polite Phrases to Start the Question

    • 저기 죄송한데요. (Jeogi joesonghandeyo.)
    • 실례합니다. (Sillyehamnida.)
    • 죄송한데요. (Joesonghandeyo.)

    These three phrases have the same meaning: “excuse me.” There’s not much difference in their meanings, so you can choose the one that feels comfortable to you.

    2. Where is…?

    • [장소]은/는 어디에 있습니까? (formal – business level)
      [Jangso]eun/neun eodie itseumnikka?
      “Where is [location]?”

    • [장소]은/는 어디에 있나요? (formal – friendly)
      [jangso]eun/neun eodie innayo?
      “Where is [location]?”

    • 이 근처에 [장소]있나요?
      I geuncheoe [jangso]innayo?
      “Is there [location] near here?”

    Example

    • A: 화장실은 어디에 있나요?
      A: Hwajangsireun eodie innayo?
      A: “Where is the restroom?”

    • B: 왼쪽에 바로 있어요.
      B: Oenjjoge baro isseoyo.
      B: “It’s right there on the left.”

    • A: 이 근처에 슈퍼마켓있나요?
      A: I geuncheoe syupeomakesinnayo?
      A: “Is there a supermarket around here?”

    • B: 바로 직진해서 횡단보도 건너면 바로 세븐일레븐이 있어요.
      B: Baro jikjinhaeseo hoengdanbodo geonneomyeon baro sebeunillebeuni isseoyo.
      B: “Just go straight, then cross the pedestrian road. There will be a Seven-Eleven.”

    3. How do I get to…?

    • [장소]는 어떻게 가나요?
      [Jangso]neun eotteoke ganayo?
      “How do I go to [location]?”

    • [장소]는 여기서 어떻게 가나요?
      [Jangso]neun yeogiseo eotteoke ganayo?
      “How do I go to [location] from here?”

    If your Korean is good enough to hold a conversation, it’s good to ask for more-detailed directions. When you say one of these sentences, people will explain the directions in detail. Or if you’re lucky, they’ll take you to the right bus stop/subway station.

    Examples

    • A: 실례합니다, 서울역은 어떻게 가나요?
      A: Sillyehamnida, seoullyeogeun eotteoke ganayo?
      A: “Excuse me, how do I go to Seoul Station?”

    • B: 서울역이요? 여기서 1호선 지하철 타고 가면 금방이예요.
      B: Seoullyeogiyo? Yeogiseo 1hoseon jihacheol tago gamyeon geumbangiyeyo.
      B: “Seoul Station? The fastest way is to take the Line 1 subway from here.”

    • A: 죄송한데요, 가로수길은 여기서 어떻게 가나요?
      A: Joesonghandeyo, Garosugireun yeogiseo eotteoke ganayo?
      A: “Excuse me, how do I go to Garosu Street from here?”

    • B: 가로수길은 버스타고 가는게 제일 나아요. 잠시만요, 확인해드릴께요.
      B: Garosugireun beoseutago ganeunge jeil naayo. Jamsimanyo, hwaginhaedeurilkkeyo.
      B: “It’s better to take a bus to go to Garosu Street. Hold on, let me check the way for you.”

    4. How far is …?

    • [장소]는 얼마나 먼가요?
      [Jangso]neun eolmana meongayo?
      “How far is [location]?”

    • 여기서 [장소]까지는 얼마나 먼가요?
      Yeogiseo [jangso]kkajineun eolmana meongayo?
      “How far is [location] from here?”

    • [장소1]에서 [장소2]까지 얼마나 걸리나요?
      [Jangsoil]eseo [jangsoi]kkaji eolmana geollinayo?
      “How long does it take to get to [location2] from [location1]?”

    Examples

    • A: 강남역에서 교보문고까지 얼마나 걸리나요?
      A: Gangnamyeogeseo Gyobomungokkaji eolmana geollinayo?
      A: “How long does it take to get to Kyobo Book Centre from Gangnam Station?”

    • B: 글쎄요, 강남역에서 걸어간다면 한 15분에서 20분정도 걸리겠네요.
      B: Geulsseyo, gangnamyeogeseo georeogandamyeon han 15buneseo 20bunjeongdo geolligenneyo.
      B: I’m not sure, but if you walk from Gangnam Station it will take about fifteen to twenty minutes.”

    5. Courtesy Phrases to Thank People

      감사합니다.
      Gamsahamnida.
      “Thank you.”

    This phrase is the most-used method to thank someone after the conversation is over. If you want to expand a little, you can also say 네, 알겠습니다. 감사합니다 (Ne, algetseumnida. Gamsahamnida.). The translation is “I understand, thank you!”

    Highway Overpass

    Roads



    5. Must-Know Phrases for Giving Directions


    Basic Questions

    1. Street Phrases


    KoreanRomanizationEnglish
    직진하면jikjinhamyeonIf you go straight
    유턴하면yuteonhamyeonIf you do a U-turn
    왼쪽/오른쪽으로 가면oenjjok/oreunjjogeuro gamyeonIf you go left/right
    우회전/좌회전하면uhoejeon/jwahoejeonhamyeonIf you go left/right


    2. For Buildings


    KoreanRomanizationEnglish
    # 층# cheung#th floor
    밑으로 가다miteuro gadaTo go down (by elevator/escalator)
    위로 올라가다wiro ollagadaTo go up (by elevator/escalator)
    지하로 가다jiharo gadaTo go to the basement


    3. To a Driver

    You’ll find the phrases below very useful when you’re traveling in South Korea. Many taxis are equipped with a free interpreter service, and some taxi drivers can speak another language, the most popular languages being Japanese and English. Nevertheless, it’s good to memorize these taxi directions in Korean!

    Examples

    • 계속 직진해주세요.
      Gyesok jikjinhaejuseyo.
      “Please continue straight.”

    • 서둘러주세요.
      Seodulleojuseyo.
      “Please speed up a bit.”

    • 조금 천천히 가주세요.
      Jogeum cheoncheonhi gajuseyo.
      “Please slow down the speed.”

    • ~에서 오른쪽/왼쪽으로 가주세요.
      ~eseo oreunjjok/oenjjogeuro gajuseyo.
      “Please turn right/left from ~.”

    • ~에서 우회전/좌회전이요.
      ~eseo uhoejeon/jwahoejeoniyo.
      “Please turn right/left from ~.”

    • 횡단보도에서 세워주세요.
      Hoengdanbodoeseo sewojuseyo.
      “Please pull over at the pedestrian road.”

    A Landmark of Korea

    6. How KoreanClass101 Can Help You with Korean


    In this article, we looked at many different ways to ask for directions in Korean. If you’re interested in learning more vocabulary about the directions in Korean, you can challenge yourself by visiting our free vocabulary page, Position / Direction, to check out more words. KoreanClass101 also provides many direction-related study materials for free, so why not create a new account today and explore the website? Good luck with your Korean studies!

    But before you go, let us know in the comments how you feel about asking and giving directions in Korean! Do you feel more confident now? Are there any Korean direction words you still want to know? We look forward to hearing from you!

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    Compliments in Korean for You to Master

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    Compliments make people feel important and good about themselves. It’s an indispensable part of conversation, too. In this article, you’ll learn various phrases you can use to praise someone for their looks, skills, and work. In addition, we’ll teach you what’s culturally acceptable when someone compliments you in Korea.

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    Table of Contents

    1. Compliments on Someone’s Look
    2. Compliments on Someone’s Work
    3. Compliments on Someone’s Skills
    4. What to Expect After Giving Compliments
    5. How KoreanClass101 Can Help You with Your Korean Skills

    1. Compliments on Someone’s Look

    A Woman Smiling at the Camera

    “You have a beautiful smile!”

    1. “Your smile is beautiful.”

    Formal
    웃는 얼굴이 아름다워요.

    Unneun eolguri areumdawoyo.

    Informal
    웃는 얼굴이 예쁘네.

    Unneun eolguri yeppeune.

    *Add 참 (cham) to give someone a stronger Korean compliment; it means “very” or “really.”

    Example:

    A: 하하하. 그렇구나.
    A: Hahaha. Geureokuna.
    A: “Hahaha. I see.”

    B: 너 그거알아? 웃는 얼굴이 참 예쁜것 같아. (informal)
    B: Neo geugeoara? Unneun eolguri cham yeppeungeot gata.
    B: “Do you know that your smile is really beautiful?”

    2. “You are beautiful.”

    Formal
    미인이세요.

    Miiniseyo.

    Informal
    미인이네.

    Miinine.

    This phrase is only used to compliment women’s appearance, mainly regarding their face; 멋있어요 (meosisseoyo) is used to compliment men’s appearance. Synonyms of this phrase are:

    • 예쁘세요. (yeppeuseyo.) [formal]
    • 예쁘다. (yeppeuda.) [informal]

    Examples:

    Informal:
    철수의 딸들은 하나같이 다 미인이야.
    Cheolsuui ttaldeureun hanagachi da miiniya.
    “Cheolsu’s daughters are all beautiful.”

    Formal:
    수미씨는 정말 미인이세요.
    Sumissineun jeongmal miiniseyo.
    “Sumi, you are really beautiful.”

    3. “You are handsome.” / “You are cool.”

    Formal
    멋있어요.

    Meosisseoyo.

    Informal
    멋져.

    Meotjyeo.

    This compliment in Korean can be used to praise both women’s and men’s appearance, as well as their behavior or personality.

    Examples:

    Formal:
    아빠는 신사답고 멋있어요.
    Appaneun sinsadapgo meosisseoyo.
    “My dad is so gentle and cool.”

    Informal:
    그 남자는 정말 멋있어.
    Geu namjaneun jeongmal meosisseo.
    “He is good-looking.”

    Compliments

    4. “You look like a celebrity.”

    Formal
    연예인 같으세요.

    Yeonyein gateuseyo.

    Informal
    연예인 같아.

    Yeonyein gata.

    Koreans tend to compliment someone’s appearance by comparing their looks to that of a famous celebrity. Another commonly used phrase is: ~ 닮았어요 (~ dalasseoyo), which means “You look like someone.” Replace 연예인 (yeonyein) with the name of any famous celebrity’s name to complete the sentence.

    Example:

    Informal:
    저 사람 너무 잘생겼다. 꼭 연예인 같아.
    Jeo saram neomu jalsaenggyeotda. Kkok yeonyein gata.
    “The person over there is so handsome. He looks like a celebrity.

    = 저 사람 너무 잘생겼다. 지드래곤 닮았어.
    = Jeo saram neomu jalsaenggyeotda. Jideuraegon dalm`asseo.
    = “The person over there is so handsome. He looks like G-dragon.

    5. “You look great in ___.”

    Formal
    ~이/가 잘 어울려요.

    ~i/ga jal eoullyeoyo.

    Informal
    ~이/가 잘 어울려.

    ~i/ga jal eoullyeo.

    Use this phrase to compliment someone’s outfit or the color of their clothing. You must add a noun to complete the sentence.

    Examples:

    Formal:
    분홍색이 잘 어울려요.
    Bunhongsaegi jal eoullyeoyo.
    “You look great in pink.”

    Formal:
    안경이 잘 어울려요.
    Angyeongi jal eoullyeoyo.
    “You look great in glasses.”

    Want to practice this phrase by saying it with different articles of clothing? Open up our free vocabulary lists on “Winter Clothes” and “Summer Clothes and Accessories” to practice more!

    2. Compliments on Someone’s Work

    A Woman Screaming into a Megaphone

    “Im the best!”

    6. “Great job!”

    Formal
    잘 하셨어요.

    Jal hasyeosseoyo.

    Informal
    잘했어.

    Jalhaesseo.

    Examples:

    Formal:
    아주 침착하게 잘 하셨어요.
    Aju chimchakage jal hasyeosseoyo.
    “You handled yourself very well.”

    Informal:
    빨리 왔네? 잘했어!
    Ppalli wanne? Jalhaesseo!
    “You came so early. Great job!”

    7. “You are the best!”

    Formal
    최고예요!

    Choegoyeyo!

    Informal
    최고야!

    Choegoya!

    You can also say 짱이야 (jjangiya), which is one of the most-used Korean slang compliments. You can only say this to your friends.

    Examples:

    Formal:
    저희는 패션 업계에서 최고입니다.
    Jeohuineun paesyeon eopgyeeseo choegoimnida.
    “We’re number-one in the fashion business.”

    Informal:
    철수 너가 최고야!
    Cheulsu neoga choegoya!
    “You are the best, Cheulsu!”

    Informal Slang:
    철수 너 짱이야!
    Cheulsu neo jjangiya!
    “You are the best, Cheulsu!”

    8. “The materials you showed at the meeting today were great.”

    Formal
    오늘 미팅에서 보여준 자료는 너무 훌륭했어요.

    Oneul mitingeseo boyeojun jaryoneun neomu hullyunghaesseoyo.

    Informal
    오늘 미팅에서 보여준 자료는 너무 훌륭했어.

    Oneul mitingeseo boyeojun jaryoneun neomu hullyunghaesseo.

    These phrases can be used just as they are after someone has given a presentation.

    9. “It was a tough project and the results exceeded expectations.”

    Formal
    힘든 프로젝트였는데 성과가 기대 이상이에요.

    Himdeun peurojekteuyeonneunde seonggwaga gidae isangieyo.

    Example:

    Formal:
    수고했어요. 힘든 프로젝트였는데 성과가 기대 이상이에요.
    Sugohaesseoyo. himdeun peurojekteuyeonneunde seonggwaga gidae isangieyo.
    “Great work. It was a tough project and the results exceeded expectations.”

    Do you need more words for talking about your job or the workplace in general? KoreanClass101 has you covered!

    Someone Intricately Carving a Piece of Fruit

    “Your knife skills are awesome!”

    3. Compliments on Someone’s Skills

    10. “You are good at cooking.”

    Formal
    요리 정말 잘하시네요.

    Yori jeongmal jalhasineyo.

    Informal
    요리 장잘 잘하네.

    Yori jangjal jalhane.

    정말 잘하시네요 (jeongmal jalhasineyo) means “You are good at something.” If you want to compliment someone on a particular skill, such as cooking, add 요리 (yori) to the front to complete the sentence.

    Examples:

    Formal:
    운동 정말 잘하시네요.
    Undong jeongmal jalhasineyo.
    “You are good at exercising.”

    Informal:
    수영 정말 잘하네.
    Suyeong jeongmal jalhane.
    “You are good at swimming.”

    11. “You are good at drawing.”

    Formal
    그림 잘 그리시네요.

    Geurim jal geurisineyo.

    Informal
    그림 잘 그리네.

    Geurim jal geurine.

    This is another one of the best Korean compliments to praise someone’s skills. While the grammar construction of the last compliment phrase is to add a noun to the beginning of the sentence, this phrase is to compliment someone’s action.

    For example, if someone is good at drawing, the noun for “drawing” is 그림 (geurim) and the verb “to draw” is 그리다 (geurida).Therefore, in order to complete the whole sentence, you need to combine these two words.

    Examples:

    Formal:
    그림 정말 잘 그리시네요.
    Geurim jeongmal jal geurisineyo.
    “You are good at drawing.”

    Informal:
    빨리 달리네.
    Ppalli dalline.
    “You are good at running.”

    12. “You speak Korean like a native.”

    Formal
    원어민 처럼 한국어를 잘하시네요.

    Woneomin cheoreom hangugeoreul jalhasineyo.

    Informal
    원어민 처럼 한국어를 잘하네.

    Woneomin cheoreom hangugeoreul jalhane.

    Want to say a different language? It’s easy; simply replace the language with a different language. Check out the Top 38 Languages Spoken in the World page on our website!

    Examples:

    Formal:
    원어민 처럼 러시아어를 잘하시네요.
    Woneomin cheoreom reosiaeoreul jalhasineyo.
    “You speak Russian like a native speaker.”

    Informal:
    원어민 처럼 영어를 잘하네.
    Woneomin cheoreom yeongeoreul jalhane.
    “You speak English like a native speaker.”

    13. “Nice picture composition.”

    Formal
    사진 구도가 멋지네요.

    Sajin gudoga meotjineyo.

    Informal
    사진 구도가 멋져.
    Sajin gudoga meotjyeo.

    Example:

    Formal:
    풍경 사진 구도가 멋지네요.
    Punggyeong sajin gudoga meotjineyo.
    “Your landscape photograph composition is wonderful.”

    Do you need some additional vocabulary to complete the phrase? Check out KoreanClass101’s vocabulary list about hobbies!

    Woman Who Feels Awkward

    “I feel awkward when someone compliments me.”

    4. What to Expect After Giving Compliments

    When you compliment someone in Korea, you’ll notice that the other person will often reply with 아, 아니에요. (a, anieyo), or respond to your compliment with awkward silence or a smile. This is because, to a Korean, accepting compliments confidently is considered rude. Therefore, they do their best to avoid appearing too arrogant to the person giving the compliment.

    There are three common phrases to use when someone compliments you in Korea. Let’s have a look.

    1. Denying the Compliment

    Formal
    아, 아니에요.

    A, anieyo.

    Informal
    아, 아니야.

    A, aniya.

    Pay close attention to their body language when they deny the compliments. They will do the double hand wave to strongly say “No” to someone. You can read more about this Korean hand gesture in our article, “10 Korean Hand Gestures You Need to Know“.

    Examples:

    Formal:
    A: 한국어 정말 잘하시네요!
    A: Hangugeo jeongmal jalhasineyo!
    A: “You speak Korean really well!”

    Formal:
    B: 아, 아니에요. 아직 잘 못해요.
    B: A, anieyo. Ajik jal mothaeyo.
    B: “Ah, no. I’m still not good at it.”

    Informal:
    C: 대박 너 진짜 빠르다.
    C: Daebak neo jinjja ppareuda.
    C: “Wow, you are so fast.”

    D: 아, 아니야.
    D: A, aniya.
    D: “Ah, no.”

    2. Requesting Assurance

    Formal
    정말이에요?

    Jeongmarieyo?

    Informal
    정말?

    Jeongmal?

    The second way is to request assurance from the person you’re speaking to. Simply respond by saying “Really?” as if you’d never heard the compliment before. In this way, you’ll appear innocent, not arrogant.

    Examples:

    A: 수진씨 보조개가 참 예쁘네요.
    A: Sujinssi bojogaega cham yeppeuneyo.
    A: “You have very nice dimples, Sujin.”

    B: 정말이에요?
    B: Jeongmarieyo?
    B: “Really?”

    Informal:
    C: 네가 입고 있는 옷 진짜 이쁜데?
    C: Nega ipgo inneun ot jinjja ippeunde?
    C: “You look really nice in that dress.”

    D: 정말?
    D: Jeongmal?
    D: “Really?”

    3. Accepting the Compliment

    Formal
    정말요? 고마워요.

    Jeongmallyo? Gomawoyo.

    Informal
    정말? 고마워.

    Jeongmal? Gomawo.

    The third way is to accept someone’s compliment by responding with “Really? Thank you.” In this way, you’ll not appear to be arrogant.

    Examples:

    Formal:
    A: 한국어 정말 잘하네요.
    A: Hangugeo jeongmal jalhaneyo.
    A: “You speak Korean fluently.”

    B: 정말요? 고마워요!
    B: Jeongmallyo? Gomawoyo!
    B: “Really? Thank you!”

    Informal:
    C: 요리 정말 잘한다!
    C: Yori jeongmal jalhanda!
    C: “You are so good at cooking!”

    D: 정말? 고마워.
    D: Jeongmal? Gomawo.
    D: “Really? Thank you.”

    Team Members High-fiving Each Other

    “Your Korean is so good!”

    5. How KoreanClass101 Can Help You with Your Korean Skills

    In summary, we learned how to compliment someone in Korean and in various situations. We also went over ways to compliment someone sincerely and how to accept compliments in Korean. Want to learn more compliment phrases? Have a look at these two pages below:

    Also check out these pages (in Korean):

    We hope that you enjoyed reading this article! Let us know in the comments which Korean compliment is your favorite!

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    KoreanClass101: The Top 20 Angry Korean Phrases

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    Anger” is 화 (hwa) in Korean and originates from the Chinese character for “fire,” which is 火. So when someone says 나 너무 화가나! (Na neomu hwagana!), can you imagine how angry that person may be?

    In this article, we’ll introduce you to the top 20 Korean angry phrases to help you express yourself in Korean.

    You get angry. Everyone gets angry. People want to express themselves. Let’s learn some angry Korean phrases!

    Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Useful Verbs in Korean
    Table of Contents

    1. Angry Korean Imperatives
    2. Korean Angry Warnings
    3. Korean Angry Blames
    4. Describing How You Feel in Korean
    5. Bonus: How to Calm Yourself Down When You’re Angry
    6. How KoreanClass101 Can Help You with Korean

    1. Angry Korean Imperatives

    Complaints

    We’ll start with angry Korean phrases that are perfect for telling others what you want them to do (or not do!).

    1- 닥쳐 (dakchyeo) “Shut up”

    Example:

    • 닥쳐! 말도 안 되는 소리 하지 마.
      Ya dakchyeo! Maldo an doeneun sori haji ma.
      “Shut up! Stop talking that nonsense!”

    2- 저리 가! (jeori ga!) “Go away”

    Example:

    • 네가 보기 싫다. 저리 가.
      Nega bogi silta. Jeori ga.
      “I don’t want to see you. Just go away.”

    3- 그만해! (geumanhae!) “Stop it!”

    Example:

    • 그만해! 이제 그만 좀 싸워!
      Geumanhae! Ije geuman jom ssawo!
      “Stop it, guys! No more fighting!”

    4- 적당히 해 (jeokdanghi hae) “That’s enough”

    Example:

    • 야! 적당히 해!
      Ya! Jeokdanghi hae!
      “Hey! That’s too much!”

    5- 집어치워 (jibeochiwo) “Cut it out”

    This phrase has two words combined together, which are 집다 (jipda), meaning “to pick up,” and 치우다 (chiuda), meaning “tidying up.” The literal translation is “pick up and tidy up.”

    You can also use this phrase in a joking way with your friends.

    Example:

    • 하하하. 야 농담 집어치워라.
      Hahaha. Ya nongdam jibeochiwora.
      “Hahaha. Hey, cut it (your joke) out.”

    6- 꺼져 (kkeojyeo) “Get lost”

    Example:

    • 야, 꺼져.
      Ya, kkeojyeo.
      “Hey, get lost.”

    A Sullen-Looking Girl

    2. Korean Angry Warnings

    Negative Verbs

    Below is a list of angry phrases in Korean you can use to let someone know it’s time to back off.

    7- 너랑 말 하고 싶지 않아 (neorang mal hago sipji ana) “I don’t want to talk with you.”

    Example:

    • A: 아직도 화났어?
      A: Ajikdo hwanasseo?
      A: “Are you still angry with me?”
    • B: 됐어. 너랑 말 하고 싶지 않아.
      B: Dwaesseo. Neorang mal hago sipji ana.
      B: “I don’t want to talk with you.”

    8- 너랑 만나고 싶지 않아 (neorang mannago sipji ana) “I don’t want to see you again.”

    Add 다신 (dashin), the shortened version of 다시 (dasi), meaning “again,” right after 너랑 (neorang) to express your anger more strongly. The meaning becomes “I don’t want to see you ever again.”

    Example:

    • A: 말 시키지마. 너랑 다신 만나고 싶지 않아.
      A: Mal sikijima. Neorang dasin mannago sipji ana.
      A: “Don’t talk to me. I don’t want to see you ever again.”
    • B: 진심이야?
      B: Jinsimiya?
      B: “Do you really mean it?”

    9- 입 조심해 (ip josimhae) “Watch your mouth.”

    Example:

    • A: 현아야 사람들이 너 입 조심하래.
      A: Hyeonaya saramdeuri neo ip josimharae.
      A: “Hyuna, people said that you should watch your mouth.”
    • B: 나? 내가 왜?
      B: Na? Naega wae?
      B: “Me? Why?”

    10- 장난하냐? (jangnyanhanya?) “Are you kidding me?”

    Example:

    • A: 야, 진짜 장난하냐?
      A: Ya, jinjja jangnanhanya?
      A: “Dude, seriously, are you kidding me?”
    • B: 야, 진정해. 장난이야.
      B: Ya, jinjeonghae. Jangnaniya.
      B: “Chill. I was just kidding.”

    11- 마지막 경고다 (majimak gyeonggoda) “This is my last warning.”

    Example:

    • A: 그 사람한테 마지막 경고는 줘야할 것 같습니다.
      A: Geu saramhante majimak gyeonggoneun jwoyahal geot gatseumnida.
      A: “We have to give him a final warning.”
    • B: 정말입니까?
      B: Jeongmarimnikka?
      B: “Are you sure?”
    • A: 마지막 경고야.
      A: Majimak gyeonggoya.
      A: “This is my last warning.”
    • B: 네 경고 따윈 무섭지도 않아!
      B: Ne gyeonggo ttawin museopjido ana!
      B: “I’m not even scared of your warnings!”

    Unhappy Employee

    3. Korean Angry Blames

    Are you looking for an angry expression in Korean to blame the other person for something? Or to let them know you don’t approve of what they did? Here you go:

    12- 너 미쳤어? (neo michyeosseo?) “Are you out of your mind?”

    Example:

    • A: 야, 너 미쳤어?
      A: Ya, neo michyeosseo?
      A: “Are you out of your mind?”
    • B: 어, 나 미쳤어. 어쩔껀데?
      B: Eo, na michyeosseo. Eojjeolkkeonde?
      B: “Yeah, I am crazy. So what?”

    13- 상관하지 마 (sanggwanhaji ma) “It’s none of your business.”

    There are two other phrases that are commonly used in Korea. The first phrase is 네 알바 아니잖아 (ne alba anijana). This has exactly the same meaning as 상관하지 마 (sanggwanhaji ma). The only difference is that 네 알바 아니잖아 (ne alba anijana) shows more aggressiveness and anger toward the person you’re speaking to.

    The second phrase is 너나 잘해 (neona jalhae), which means “Just do well yourself.” This phrase is commonly used among friends to say “Mind your own business.”

    Example:

    • A: 뭐 보고 있어? 나도 좀 보자!
      A: Mwo bogo isseo? Nado jom boja!
      A: “What are you looking at? Let me have a look, too.”
    • B: 그만해, 상관하지 마
      B: Geumanhae, sanggwanhaji ma.
      B: “Stop it, it’s none of your business.”
    • A: 너 빨리 말해, 어제 뭐했어?
      A: Neo ppalli malhae, eoje mwohaesseo?
      A: “Hurry up and tell me, what did you do yesterday?”
    • B: 네 알바 아니잖아!
      B: Ne alba anijana!
      B: “It’s none of your business!”

    14- 네가 뭔데? (Nega mwonde?) “Who do you think you are?”

    Example:

    • A: 야 저 남자 너무 못생겼다 그치? 하하.
      A: Ya jeo namja neomu motsaenggyeotda geuchi? Haha.
      A: “Hey, that man looks hideous, doesn’t he? Haha.”
    • B: 네가 뭔데 그사람에 대해서 그렇게 말할 수 있냐?
      B: Nega mwonde geusarame daehaeseo geureoke malhal su innya?
      B: “Who are you to talk about him like that?”
    • 고상한 척 하지마. 네가 뭔데 그래?
      Gosanghan cheok hajima. Nega mwonde geurae?
      “Don’t be such a snob. Who do you think you are?”

    15- 내 말 안듣고 있잖아 (nae mal andeutgo itjana) “You were not listening to me.”

    Example:

    • A: 야, 왜 강아지를 때려?
      A: Ya, wae gangajireul ttaeryeo?
      A: “Hey, why did you slap your dog?”
    • B: 내 말 안듣고 있잖아!
      B: Nae mal andeutgo itjana!
      B “(Because) He’s not listening to me!”

    Two office workers arguing over Something

    4. Describing How You Feel in Korean

    Here are some useful phrases to effectively let someone know you’re angry in Korean, or to discuss other negative emotions you’re feeling.

    16- 나 열받았어 (na yeolbadasseo) “I’m angry.”

    Add 완전 (wanjeon), meaning “absolute,” or 진짜 (jinjja), meaning “really,” after 나 (na) to express your level of anger.

    Example:

    • 나 지금 완전 열 받았어.
      Na jigeum wanjeon yeol badasseo.
      “I’m so pissed off right now.”

    17- 정말 짜증난다 (jeongmal jjajeungnanda) “I’m really annoyed.”

    Example:

    • 나 정말 짜증나 죽겠어.
      Na jeongmal jjajeungna jukgesseo.
      “I’m really annoyed.” (Literal translation: “I’m about to die over annoyance.” )

    18- 완전 실망했어 (wanjeon silmanghaesseo) “I’m really disappointed.”

    Example:

    • 너의 그런 모습에 완전 실망했어.
      Neoui geureon moseube wanjeon silmanghaesseo.
      “I’m really disappointed because of your behavior.”

    19- 아이씨! (aissi!) “To express anger or frustration”

    Example:

    • 아이씨 깜짝이야!
      Aissi kkamjjagiya!
      “Whoa! What a surprise!”

    20- 속상해 (soksanghae) “I’m upset.”

    Example:

    • 오늘 지갑을 잃어버렸어. 아이씨 속상해!
      Oneul jigabeul ileobeoryeosseo. aissi soksanghae!
      “I lost my wallet today. I’m so upset!”

    5. Bonus: How to Calm Yourself Down When You’re Angry

    Everyone has the right to express themselves, and there’s no exception when it comes to expressing your anger. However, it’s good to be able to manage your anger (instead of letting it control you). Here are some tips to calm yourself down when you’re angry.

    1- Try to breathe ten times

    When you’re angry, your heart beat tends to increase, making it more difficult for you to think rationally. Try inhaling and exhaling slowly ten times to calm yourself down, and make sure to do this before trying to express yourself.

    2- Go for a walk

    Taking a walk helps you calm down and clear your thoughts. When you’re angry, so many negative thoughts go through your mind that it becomes difficult to cool down. Try walking outside for at least thirty minutes to alleviate stress and give your mind a boost.

    3- Try to think of happy times to convert your negative feelings

    Think of times when you felt happy, whether it was with your family, friends, or other people you care about a lot, because you deserve to be happy!

    4- Try to find the cause of your anger

    You don’t like being in crowded areas? Then try not to force yourself to go to those areas. Or does discussing politics or environmental issues upset you? Then try your best to avoid doing so. If you know what’s causing you to feel angry, then finding a solution will be easier.

    5- Seek help

    Even if you’ve already tried many methods to calm yourself down, managing anger is very difficult for some people. If you’ve been having difficulty managing your anger, it’s best to seek help.

    Check out this page called 나는 화를 잘 내는 편일까: 분노 심리테스트 (Naneun hwareul jal naeneun pyeonilkka: Bunno simniteseuteu), which translates to “Do I Get Angry Easily?: Anger Test” to test your anger level!

    Two Boys Pointing at a Globe and a Teacher in the Background

    6. How KoreanClass101 Can Help You with Korean

    In summary, we’ve explained the definition of “anger” in Korean and introduced you to the top 20 Korean angry phrases. In addition, we also outlined five ways for you to manage your anger.

    If you want to learn more about different emotion-related phrases, check out the pages below!

    Before you go, let us know if you find these angry Korean phrases sufficient! Are there any angry situations you still want phrases for? We look forward to hearing from you!

    Good luck!

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