This is Tim from KC101.com.
Throughout this post, I'd like to mention about 'Noun Modifier' - "--는"
Please keep this in mind!!!
1. Do not confused "--는" with 'Topic Marking Particle - 는'.
a. 'Noun Modifier' is attached to VERB STEM!!!
(used with be-verb, or action / adjective verbs)
b. 'Topic Marking Particle - 는' is attached to NOUN!!!
(used with nouns)
2. The usage of 'Noun Modifier' is to MODIFY nouns => therefore, its element is 'ADJECTIVE'.
3. MUST know about 동사어간 "VERB STEM"
(if you don't know about them well, please take a good look at http://www.koreanclass101.com/forum/vie ... php?t=2805
Okay, let's play~~
Here are examples...
1. with 'be-verb' = 'adjective verb'
RULES - #1, if the VST ends with a vowel (without a 받침) => attach "ㄴ" to VST
#2, if the VST ends with a consonant (with a 받침) => attach "은" to VST
a. 크다 "to be big / to be tall" => 크 + ㄴ => 큰 ex) 큰 나무 "tall trees"
b. 작다 "to be little / to be short" => 작 + 은 => 작은 ex) 작은 나무 "little trees"
c. 이쁘다 "to be beautiful / pretty" => 이쁘 + ㄴ => 이쁜 ex) 이쁜 꽃 "beautiful flowers"
d. 짧다 "to be short" => 짧 + 은 => 짧은 ex) 짧은 다리 "short legs" 하하하 (Tim's legs are short!!!)
There are some exceptions on that but, generally it goes with the rules!!!
2. with 'action verb' - an INDICATION of past tense / an action that is completed!
(please take a look at - http://www.koreanclass101.com/forum/vie ... php?t=2805
RULES are basically same as 1 (with 'be-verb').
a. 하다 "to do" => 하 + ㄴ => 한 ex) 이 것을 한
사람은 Tim 입니다. "This is Tim who did
b. 먹다 "to eat" => 먹 + 은 => 먹은 ex) 이 과자를 먹은
사람은 Tim 입니다. "That's Tim who ate
c. 보다 "to see" => 보 + ㄴ => 본 ex) 이 영화는 어제 본
영화야. "This movie is the movie that I saw yesterday."
d. 읽다 "to read" => 읽 + 은 => 읽은 ex) 이 책은 줄리아가 읽은
책이야. "This book is the book that Julia read (already)."
There are some exceptions on that as well but, generally it goes with the rules....
3. And last, with 'action verb' - an INDICATOR of present tense / an action is ongoing!!! - "--ing"
RULES is simple - attach 는 right after VST => becoming "---ing"
a. 공부하다 "to study" => 공부하 + 는 => 공부하는 ex) 저기 공부하는
사람은... "that person studying
b. 오다 "to come" => 오 + 는 => 오는 ex) 저기 오는
사람은... "that person coming
c. 앉다 "to sit" => 앉 + 는 => 앉는 ex) 지금 의자에 앉는
사람은... "the individual sitting
on the chair is..."
d. 가다 "to go" => 가 + 는 => 가는 ex) 지금 회사에 가는
사람은... "the person going
to the office is..."
Okay, that's all!
Does this post give you clear explanation....? I really hope so!
Thanks for your time and study.
Please feel free to give me any advice and comment on this post.
cheers, 여러분 힘내세요~~ "Go Go Everyone~~~"
ps. For more practice on 'VERB STEM (VST)', please give a listen to "Lower Intermediate Season 2"