Dialogue

Vocabulary

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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
Brandon: The Sentence Ending Particles!
Kyejin: 안녕하세요. I'm Kyejin.
Brandon: In this lesson, you’ll learn how to use basic sentence-ending particles. The conversation takes place during military basic training.
Kyejin: It’s between a Drill Sergeant, 하사 (hasa), and a new private.
Brandon: The sergeant will use informal Korean and the private will use formal Korean. Okay, let's listen to the conversation.
Kyejin, 하사 (sergeant) is a female. Please read her lines.

Lesson conversation

하사: 중요한 이야기가 있다. 잘 들어라.
병사: 네, 알겠습니다.
하사: 내일부터 우리는 DMZ(디엠지)에서 훈련을 한다.
병사: 네? 디엠지가 어디에요?
하사: 요.. 요? 군인은 "다"만 사용한다.
Brandon: Listen to the conversation one time slowly.
하사: 중요한 이야기가 있다. 잘 들어라.
병사: 네, 알겠습니다.
하사: 내일부터 우리는 DMZ(디엠지)에서 훈련을 한다.
병사: 네? 디엠지가 어디에요?
하사: 요.. 요? 군인은 "다"만 사용한다.
Brandon: Listen to the conversation with English translation
하사: 중요한 이야기가 있다. 잘 들어라.
Sergeant: We have an important notice. Listen carefully.
병사: 네, 알겠습니다.
Soldier: Yes, ma'am.
하사: 내일부터 우리는 DMZ(디엠지)에서 훈련을 한다.
Sergeant: From tomorrow, we'll have training in the DMZ.
병사: 네? 디엠지가 어디에요?
Soldier: What? What's a DMZ?
하사: 요.. 요? 군인은 "다"만 사용한다.
Sergeant: ‘Yo'.. 'yo'? Soldiers only use 'da'.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Brandon: In the dialogue, the sergeant told the soldier to use one sentence ending particle and not the other. Why did she say that?
Kyeji: Well, in Korea, there's a culture called 다 나 까. (da na kka). 나 (na) is a word meaning "or" so it literally means 다 (da) or 까 (kka.) culture.
Brandon: So that means you can only use the sentence ending particles da or kka?
Kyejin: That’s right. What do you know about the other sentence-ending particle, 요 (yo)?
Brandon: I know that it sounds softer than these other two sentence-ending particles.
Kyejin: That’s right. When you’re in a company that has 다 (da) or 까 (kka) culture, or in the military, you can’t use 요 (yo), just the sentence ending particles 다 (da) or 까 (kka) .
Brandon: I see. It’s like saying Ma’am or Sir in the US military
Kyejin: Exactly. That’s why the sergeant said 다 나 까 만 사용해. Da na kka"man sayonghae. which means “Use the sentence ending particle da or kka only."
Brandon: But in daily conversation, Korean people use the sentence ending particle yo more often, right?
Kyejin: Right. I think that’s one reason Koreans ask their employees or soldiers not to use the sentence ending particle 요 (yo), so that they can separate their work life from their home life.
Brandon: So Koreans show their devotion to work by separating the two with particle use. That’s very interesting! Now let’s move on to the vocab.
VOCAB LIST
Let’s take a closer look at some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Brandon: The first word is..
Kyejin: 중요한 [natural native speed]
Brandon: important
Kyejin: 중요한 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Kyejin: 중요한 [natural native speed]
Next we have..
Kyejin: 듣다 [natural native speed]
Brandon: to hear, to listen
Kyejin: 듣다 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Kyejin: 듣다 [natural native speed]
Next we have..
Kyejin: 알겠습니다 [natural native speed]
Brandon: Okay, All right, I understand.
Kyejin: 알겠습니다 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Kyejin: 알겠습니다 [natural native speed]
Next we have..
Kyejin: 부터 [natural native speed]
Brandon: from
Kyejin: 부터 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Kyejin: 부터 [natural native speed]
Next we have..
Kyejin: 내일 [natural native speed]
Brandon: tomorrow
Kyejin: 내일 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Kyejin: 내일 [natural native speed]
Next we have..
Kyejin: 디엠지 [natural native speed]
Brandon: DMZ, demilitarized zone
Kyejin: 디엠지 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Kyejin: 디엠지 [natural native speed]
Next we have..
Kyejin: 훈련 [natural native speed]
Brandon: training, exercise (in the military)
Kyejin: 훈련 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Kyejin: 훈련 [natural native speed]
Next we have..
Kyejin: 군인 [natural native speed]
Brandon: soldier, serviceperson (in a military)
Kyejin: 군인 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Kyejin: 군인 [natural native speed]
KEY VOCAB AND PHRASES
Brandon: Let's have a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson. The first one we’ll discuss is...
Kyejin: 디엠지
Brandon: which means "DMZ, demilitarized zone.”
Kyejin: 디엠지 (diemji) is the way Koreans pronounce DMZ.
Brandon: But it seems like you read the Z as a J sound and not a Z.
Kyejin: That’s right. In Korean, you're supposed to read “z” as ㅈ (j), so make sure you don't make a “z” sound here.
Brandon: I know the DMZ is the demilitarized zone between North and South Korea. It runs across the Korean peninsula. What else can you tell us about it?
Kyejin: You can’t go into this area. It's 4 kilometers or 2.5 miles wide, with barbed-wire fences on both sides.
Brandon: And north and south Korean soldiers stand guard there. But there is one area where you can see North Korean soldiers.
Kyejin: Yes, and it’s called 판문점 (panmunjeom.) You can go there if you take a DMZ tour.
Brandon: That sounds interesting.
Kyejin: And if you were going on that tour, you could say.. 내일 디엠지 투어가 있습니다.
Brandon: meaning "I have a DMZ tour tomorrow." Okay, what’s the next word?
Kyejin: Next, we have..
Kyejin: 내일
Brandon: meaning “tomorrow.”
Kyejin: 내 (nae) means "to come", and 일 (il) means "day." It literally means "the day to come" or "tomorrow."
Brandon: I see. Can you give us an example?
Kyejin: Sure! 나는 내일 비행기를 탄다. (naneun nae-il bihaeng-gireul tanda.)
Brandon: "I'll take a flight tomorrow." How do you say other days, like “the day after tomorrow?”
Kyejin: You can put 모레 (mo-re) next to the word 내일 (naeil) meaning “tomorrow.” - 내일 모레 (naeil mo-re) It means “The day after tomorrow.”
Brandon: What about “the day before yesterday”?
Kyejin: That doesn’t follow the same pattern. 어제 means “yesterday” but you can’t add the word 모레 to mean “the day before.” You need to say 그저께 (geujeokke) to mean “the day before yesterday.”
Brandon: And there’s a word meaning “the two days before yesterday”, right?
Kyejin: That’s right, just say 그 (geu) twice, as in 그그저께 (geugeujeokke)”. Then it means “the two days before yesterday.” So 그저께 means ‘the day before yesterday.” and 그그저께 means “the two days before yesterday.”
Brandon: Okay, now let’s move on to the grammar.

Lesson focus

Brandon: In this lesson, you'll learn how to use sentence ending particles. Sentence ending particles are particles you can add at the end of the sentence to mark the politeness level. And in this lesson, we’re going to cover three groups of sentence ending particles. What particles will we cover first?
Kyejin: First we have the sentence ending particles 다 and 이다 (da, ida)
Brandon: These are affirmative Korean sentence ending particles – the verb that expresses “to be”.
Kyejin: You can put these after a noun, or a verb stem. For example, you can have a noun, then put 다 or 이다.
Brandon: Can you give us an example?
Kyejin: 나는 학생이다.
Brandon: meaning “I’m a student.”
Kyejin: Here, I put the sentence-ending particle 이다 after the noun 학생 meaning “a student.”
Brandon: You used 이다 (ida) because the noun ends in a consonant, right?
Kyejin: That’s right. If the noun or verb-stem ends in a vowel, you can use 다 instead. For example, 나는 여자다.
Brandon: Meaning “I’m a woman.”
Kyejin: The word 여자 meaning “woman” ends in a vowel, so I used 다 as the sentence ending particle.
Brandon: Now listeners, be careful, because you can’t use these sentence-ending particles when you talk to older people. These sentence-ending particles are called ‘Basic sentence ending particles’, and they are not used in formal sentences. You can use them only in informal situations, or in writing. Kyejin, what sentence-ending particles can you use for formal situation?
Kyejin: They are in the next group, which is ㅂ니다 (b-nida) and 습니다. (seumnida.)
Brandon: These are sentence ending particles that you can use with verbs. They turn the verb into the present tense, and mark it as being at the formal politeness level. Can you give us an example?
Kyejin: Sure. 계진이는 학교에 갑니다
Brandon: Kyejin goes to a school. (formal)
Kyejin: 브랜든은 먹습니다.
Brandon: Brandon eats. (formal )
Kyejin: For the first sentence, I used ㅂ니다.(b-nida) For the second one, I used 습니다. (seumnida.)
Brandon: I think our listeners now know why you used different particles.
Kyejin: I think so. The dictionary form of the verb in the first sentence is 가다 (gada) meaning “to go.” The verb-stem is 가- (ga) and it ends in a vowel. So I used ㅂ니다. (bnida)
Brandon: And the other sentence had a verb-stem ending in a consonant, right?
Kyejin: That’s right. 먹다 (meokda) is the dictionary form of the verb in the sentence, and its verb-stem is 먹- (meok-), which ends in a consonant. That’s why I used 습니다. (seumnida.)
Brandon: I see. Listeners, make sure you check the lesson notes for more information about this. You can see how the conjugation is done step-by-step. As we said, these sentence-ending particles will make the sentence polite.
Kyejin: And it ends with -다, so they can be used in a military setting too! But you can’t use the ending in the next group, which is 요. (yo), in the military.
Brandon: This is the last group of sentence ending particles. 요 (Yo) is a post-position politeness marker that is typically used at the standard politeness level. Kyejin, what’s the difference between this particle and the previous ones?
Kyejin: Well, although -요 and ㅂ니다/습니다 give sentences a politeness level, -요 switches the sentence to the intimate politeness level, while -ㅂ니다/습니다 switches the sentence into the formal politeness level.
Brandon: In other words, it makes it sound softer and more friendly, right?
Kyejin: That’s right. That’s why I use 요 (yo) when I’m talking to my aunts or parents.
Brandon: I see. Can you give us an example?
Kyejin: Sure. 저는 바빠요. (bappayo)
Brandon: That means “I’m busy.” But Kyejin, it seems like there’s an additional word between the verb-stem and the sentence-ending particle.
Kyejin: There is! 바쁘다 (bappeuda) is the dictionary form of the verb used in this sentence. It means “busy.” The verb-stem is 바쁘- (bappeu-) but when it meets the sentence-ending particle 요 (yo), the vowel ㅡ (eu) drops, and..
Brandon: This sounds complicated.
Kyejin: Yes, it is. So that’s why we’re going to cover them in the next lesson!
Brandon: In lesson five, you’ll learn about the words you can put between the verb-stem and the sentence-ending particle. Make sure you come back for that lesson, because you’ll use it a lot when you’re speaking Korean!

Outro

Brandon: And that’s all for this lesson. Thanks for listening, everyone, and we’ll see you next time! Bye!
Kyejin: 안녕히 계세요.

41 Comments

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KoreanClass101.com Verified
Monday at 06:30 PM
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Which sentence ending particle do you use more often?

KoreanClass101.com Verified
Friday at 12:08 PM
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안녕하세요 Ola,


Thank you so much for your heart! ❤️️❤️️

We are very happy that you like to study with us.

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레벤테 (Levente)

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Ola
Friday at 09:11 PM
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❤️️

KoreanClass101.com Verified
Wednesday at 01:20 PM
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Hi pinkyellow,


Thank you for studying with us.

You can read more about the feature here:😄

https://www.koreanclass101.com/helpcenter/faqandsupport/textuserguide


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pinkyellow
Thursday at 02:55 PM
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thanks for the lesson.


may i ask where is the voice-recording tool? i can't see it

KoreanClass101.com Verified
Friday at 02:26 PM
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Hello DIYOTAMA MAZUMDER,


That's good! Eventually you have a better understanding of which ending form to use depending on the situation.

Keep up the good work!


Kind regards,

Hyeon Yeong Seo

Team KoreanClass101.com

DIYOTAMA MAZUMDER
Monday at 03:05 PM
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I usually use the -요 form . But nowadays I also use the - ㅂ니다 / 습니다 form .

KoreanClass101.com Verified
Monday at 02:48 PM
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Hello Evelien


You are right! -요 is good ending particle to use in various situations. 😄

Keep up the good work!👍


Kind regards,

Hyeon Yeong Seo

Team KoreanClass101.com

Evelien
Tuesday at 07:56 PM
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From these 3 I prefer using -요, it's polite but not too polite and I think it sounds very Korean when you end a sentence with -어요, -아요, -았어요, -었어요 or others like those

KoreanClass101.com Verified
Thursday at 11:07 PM
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안녕하세요 Meghna laskar,


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레벤테 (Levente)

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Meghna laskar
Tuesday at 11:57 PM
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it was said that we can join free classess too, but the pdf's are blocked why so? people like me who are from other can't afford to pay for classes, even after saying free classes how can you do that, already it's so hard to read without any other classes or knowing and starting from the rock bottom atleast allowing to download audios and pdfs would have been helpful. No hard feelings just dissapointed.