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Lesson Transcript

Brandon: The Object Marking Particles Eul and Reul. I’m Brandon!
Kyejin: 안녕하세요. I'm Kyejin.
Brandon: In this lesson, you’ll learn to how to use object marking particles. The conversation takes place at a classroom.
Kyejin: It’s between Sujin and Woojin.
Brandon: The speakers know each other but are not friends, so they’ll be using informal Korean. Okay, let's listen to the conversation.

Lesson conversation

수진: 지금 무슨 책을 읽고 있어?
우진: 영어 문법 책!
수진: 와. 영어를 할 수 있어?
우진: 응. 너는?
수진: 나는 일본어를 할 수 있어. 하지만 조금만.
우진: 나도 일본어를 할 수 있어. 일본 애니메이션을 좋아해!
Brandon: Listen to the conversation one time slowly.
수진: 지금 무슨 책을 읽고 있어?
우진: 영어 문법 책!
수진: 와. 영어를 할 수 있어?
우진: 응. 너는?
수진: 나는 일본어를 할 수 있어. 하지만 조금만.
우진: 나도 일본어를 할 수 있어. 일본 애니메이션을 좋아해!
Brandon: Listen to the conversation with the English translation
수진: 지금 무슨 책을 읽고 있어?
Sujin: What book are you reading now?
우진: 영어 문법 책!
Woojin: A book about English grammar.
수진: 와! 영어를 할 수 있어?
Sujin: Wow. Do you speak English?
우진: 응. 너는?
Wujin: Yes. What about you?
수진: 나는 일본어를 할 수 있어. 하지만 조금만.
Sujin: I speak Japanese. But only a little.
우진: 나도 일본어를 할 수 있어. 일본 애니메이션을 좋아해!
Wujin: I speak Japanese too. I like Japanese animation!
Brandon: Kyejin, do a lot of Koreans know other languages?
Kyejin: I think it’s common for Koreans to be able to speak more than one language, especially English. Although their level may not be as fluent as you might expect, you'll have no problem communicating with them if you use plain English.
Brandon: I hear that Korean companies set a high bar when they’re hiring a new employee, so it's essential to get a high score on their English tests. Is this why most Koreans speak English?
Kyejin: Yes, that’s why many college students study English very hard in Korea. Also, many college students and even workers try to learn one or two more languages such as Japanese or Chinese, so they have access to more job opportunities.
Brandon: Did you learn English so you could get a better job?
Kyejin: Yes, I studied it at college. Also some of my friends considered learning Chinese. But it’s not because they were interested in Chinese culture or working in China.
Brandon: So... why did they study Chinese?
Kyejin: It was because they thought it would make them stand out from the crowd and give them better job prospects.
Brandon: There will certainly be a higher demand for people who can speak Chinese in the future, so it’s not a bad strategy! Before we move on to the vocab, can you tell us how to say which languages you speak in Korean?
Kyejin: For example, you could say 저는 영어와 중국어를 말할 수 있어요. (jeoneun yeong-eowa jungugeoreul malhal su isseoyo.)
Brandon: That means "I speak English and Chinese."
Kyejin: But please note that Korean people use the phrase 할 수 있다 (halsu itta) meaning "to be able to" when they want to say how many languages they DO speak, even if some of them are their mother tongue.
Brandon: ok, so you always use this verb when talking about languages? good to know. Let’s move onto the vocab.
Brandon: The first word is..
Kyejin: 문법 [natural native speed]
Brandon: grammar
Kyejin: 문법 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Kyejin: 문법 [natural native speed]
Next we have..
Kyejin: 영어 [natural native speed]
Brandon: English
Kyejin: 영어 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Kyejin: 영어 [natural native speed]
Next we have..
Kyejin: 책 [natural native speed]
Brandon: book
Kyejin: 책 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Kyejin: 책 [natural native speed]
Next we have..
Kyejin: 일본어 [natural native speed]
Brandon: Japanese
Kyejin: 일본어 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Kyejin: 일본어 [natural native speed]
The next word is..
Kyejin: 조금만 [natural native speed]
Brandon: just a little bit
Kyejin: 조금만 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Kyejin: 조금만 [natural native speed]
Next we have..
Kyejin: 좋아하다 [natural native speed]
Brandon: to like
Kyejin: 좋아하다 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Kyejin: 좋아하다 [natural native speed]
and Next
Kyejin: 도 [natural native speed]
Brandon: too, also
Kyejin: 도 [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Kyejin: 도 [natural native speed]
And Last...
Kyejin: 와! [natural native speed]
Brandon: wow
Kyejin: 와! [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Kyejin: 와! [natural native speed]
Brandon: Let's have a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson. First up is...
Kyejin: 문법
Brandon: meaning "grammar"
Kyejin: 문 (mun) means "letter" or "text" and 법 (beop) means "law." So it literally means "the law of text."
Brandon: When can you use this phrase?
Kyejin: You'll hear this a lot when you’re learning Korean. Here are some Korean words related to grammar. Firstly, 문법이 쉽다. (munbeobi siptta)
Brandon: Meaning “Grammar is easy.”
Kyejin: 문법이 어렵다. (munbeobi eoyeopta)
Brandon: Grammar is difficult.
Kyejin: 문법이 간단하다. (munbeobi ganttanhada)
Brandon: Grammar is simple.
Kyejin: 문법이 재미있다. (munbeobi jaemi-itta)
Brandon: Grammar is interesting.
Brandon: Can we have one more example sentence?
Kyejin: Sure! 한국어 문법이 어렵습니다. (hangugeo munbeobi eoryeopsseumnida.)
Brandon: This means "Korean grammar is difficult." Kyejin, are there some other words that we need to know when talking about grammar?
Kyejin: There is! first is: 문장 (munjang)
Brandon: Which means “sentence”
Kyejin: 단어 (daneo)
Brandon: vocabulary
Kyejin: 명사 (myeong-sa)
Brandon: noun
Kyejin: 동사 (dong-sa)
Brandon: verb
Kyejin: 조사 (josa)
Brandon: particle
Kyejin: 어미 (eomi)
Brandon: sentence-ending particle
Kyejin: 부사 (busa)
Brandon: adverb
Kyejin: 대명사 (dae-myeongsa)
Brandon: Meaning “pronoun.” Okay, let’s move on to the next word
Kyejin: 와!
Brandon: It’s an interjection that works like "wow" or "oh" in English. When can you use this phrase?
Kyejin: You can use this interjection in both informal and formal situations. But make sure you don't put a “U” sound after 와(wa).
Brandon: So we need to say Wa. not Wow, right?
Kyejin: That’s right. Also, using 오 (oh) doesn't sound natural in Korean and can sometimes even sound rude, so it's better not to say it.
Brandon: We’re just mentioning it because you might hear it. Can you give us an example?
Kyejin: Sure! 와! 이 게임이 정말 재미있어요. (wa! i geimi jeongmal jaemiisseoyo.)
Brandon: This means "Wow! This game is really interesting." What other words can we use to show surprise?
Kyejin: You can also say 정말 (jeongmal) or 정말이요 (jeongmariyo) to mean "Really?" as an alternative to "Oh" or "interesting."
Brandon: Unlike its literal meaning, you will see Korean people using this word just to show their interest in your story, even if they didn't actually mean "Really?"
Kyejin: That’s right. Don’t think your Korean friends don’t trust you if they keep saying 정말? (jeongmal) or “Really?” when you’re talking with them. It just means something like “Oh” or “Interesting.”
Brandon: That’s good to know. Okay, now onto the lesson focus.

Lesson focus

Kyejin: In this lesson, you'll learn how to use the object marking particles 을 (eul) and 를 (reul.)
Brandon: These two object marking particles mark the object of a sentence when you attach them to a noun. What can you tell us about the function of these particles, Kyejin?
Kyejin: Well, these particles only have one function - marking objects. We often drop particles like the object marking particle in speech, and we simply infer them from the context.
Brandon: . If a verb requires an object, the post position particle or object marking particle attaches to the object of the sentence and marks it.
Kyejin: So -을 or 를 (eul/reul) marks the object of the sentence, which is the noun that the verb of the sentence is acting upon.
Brandon: Usually this particle is used in conjunction with action verbs. Kyejin, how do you choose which of these two particles to use?
Kyejin: You attach 을 (eul) to nouns that end with a consonant. And you attach 를 (reul) to nouns that end with a vowel.
Brandon: Can you give us some examples with these particles?
Kyejin: Sure! First we have 나는 너를 잘 모릅니다. (Naneun neoreul jal moreumnida)
Brandon: Which means “I don’t know you well enough.”
Kyejin: Here, 너 is the word meaning “you” that acts as an object of this sentence. The word 너 ends with a vowel, so you use the object-marking particle 를 (reul) to mark it as the object.
Brandon: Next we have..
Kyejin: 그는 그들을 잘 압니다. (Geuneun geudeureul jal amnida)
Brandon: meaning “I know them very well.”
Kyejin: In this sentence, you can use the object-marking particle 을 because the pronoun 그들 (gereul) or “they” in English, ends with a consonant.
Brandon: Kyejin, I know that in daily conversation, people sometimes drop the particle when they’re speaking. When that happens, how can you tell what the object is?
Kyejin: Just remember that Korean has a Subject-Object-Verb sentence structure.
Brandon: Can you give us an example?
Kyejin: For example, if someone says.. 우리 오락 합니다. (uri orak hamnida.)
Brandon: It literally means “We, Game, Play.”..
Kyejin: The first word is the subject, so the second one must be the object. So it will mean..
Brandon: We play games, right?.. because the second word should be an object.
Kyejin: That’s right. You can understand that 우리 (uri) meaning “we” is the subject because it’s placed first, then 오락 (orak) meaning “game” is the object because it’s placed right before the verb 합니다. meaning “to do.”
Brandon: Can we have an example using pronouns?
Kyejin: Sure, 나 너 사랑합니다. (na neo sarang-hamnida.) which literally means “I, You, Love”, you can figure out that the second one is the object of this sentence, so it will mean “I love you.” not “You love me.”
Brandon: What else can you tell us about these particles?
Kyejin: You can use the object marking particles 을 and 를 when you’re talking about likes and dislikes.
Brandon: In Korean, there are two ways to say “to like” and “to dislike.”
Kyejin: First is group 1, which is called 하다 form. In this form, you’d say subject-object-을 좋아하다 (eul + joahada) to mean “to like” or subject-object-을+ 싫어하다 (eul + sireohada) to mean “to dislike. For sure, you can use 를 instead of 을 here too.
Brandon: Can you give us some examples?
Kyejin: Sure. For example, 나는 브랜든을 좋아하다.
Brandon: Meaning.. “I like Brandon.”
Kyejin: Here, I used the verb 좋아하다 (joahada) which ends with 하다 (hada).When you use the verb hada you can only use the object marking particles eul or reul.
Brandon: OK, what’s the second form?
Kyejin: Group 2 is called the +다 form. It uses 좋다 (like) or 싫다 (dislike) without using 하다 at the end.
Brandon: Now listeners, for group 1 you’ll still be using the same particles as before to mark the object. But for Group 2, you need to mark the subject, not the object, using different particles.
Kyejin: Right. For “to like”, you’d say subject-(i/ga or eun/neun) then 좋다 ( jota) and for “to dislike”, you’d say subject-(i/ga or eun/neun) then (silta).
Brandon: Please note that you cannot use object marking particles with these verbs.
Kyejin: That’s right. You can only use object marking particles when using the verbs 좋아하다 and 싫어하다.
Brandon: And for the second group, you can only use the subject marking particles
Kyejin 이 and 가
Brandon: or the topic marking particles
kyejin 은 and 는.


Brandon: Well, that’s all for this lesson. Thanks for listening, everyone, and we’ll see you next time! Bye!
Kyejin: 안녕히 계세요.