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Lesson Transcript

Hi, everyone! Welcome to the Korean Whiteboard Lesson!
“My name is K-Jin.”
안녕하세요, 케이진입니다.
(Annyeonghaseyo, keijin-ibnida.)
Today, we are going to talk about top 10 Korean verbs.
So, let’s get started!
Okay. So, let’s look at the top 10 Korean verbs.
So, these are the vocabulary for today.
First word is “to eat” 먹다 (meogda).
먹다 (meogda) [enunciated]
먹다 (meogda)
“To drink” is 마시다 (masida).
마시다 (masida) [enunciated]
마시다 (masida)
How about “to look / to watch / to see”?
We use this verb, 보다 (boda).
보다 (boda) [enunciated]
보다 (boda)
And next, “listen” or “hear” is 듣다 (deudda).
듣다 (deudda)
듣다 (deudda) [enunciated]
“To go” is 가다 (gada).
가다 (gada) [enunciated]
가다 (gada)
How about “to buy”? You buy things, right?
It’s 사다 (sada).
사다 (sada) [enunciated]
사다 (sada)
When you “say (something)” or “speak” or “talk,” you use this verb, 말하다 (malhada).
말하다 (malhada) [enunciated]
말하다 (malhada)
And “to read,” to read newspaper, to read a book, 읽다 (ilgda).
읽다 (ilgda)
This has double 받침 (badchim), double final sound, so sometimes, you don’t know how to read it and this sounds like /ilgda/, /ilgda/. So just remember, it’s like you have only one kiyo. 읽다 (ilgda), 읽다 (ilgda).
쓰다 (sseuda)
쓰다 (sseuda) means “to write.”
쓰다 (sseuda) [enunciated]
쓰다 (sseuda)
How about this, “do”?
하다 (hada)
하다 (hada) [enunciated]
하다 (hada)
Among all these words, I will say this 하다 (hada) verb is the most useful one, because if you just put action noun and say 하다 (hada), it becomes a verb.
For example:
공부하다 (gongbuhada)
공부 (gongbu) means “study.”
하다 (hada) means “to do,” so it literally means “do study” and it becomes the verb 공부하다 (gongbuhada).
공부 (gongbu) is a noun and just put 하다 (hada).
How about this, “cleaning,” cleaning?
It’s 청소 (cheongso), it’s a noun, and just put this “do” verb, 하다 (hada).
청소하다 (cheongsohada) [enunciated]
청소하다 (cheongsohada)
It becomes a verb and it means “to clean.”
How about “exercise”?
Exercise, if it’s a noun, it’s 운동 (undong).
운동 (undong) [enunciated]
Just put this 하다 (hada) verb after that, 운동하다 (undonghada), that becomes a verb meaning “to exercise.”
So remember, this 하다 (hada) verb is really common.
Let’s look at the dialogue.
When I read this dialogue, please pay attention to the verb, what verb I used. So see what verb is used in the dialogue and how it’s used.
뭐해요? (Mwohaeyo?)
뭐해요? (Mwohaeyo?) [enunciated]
뭐해요? (Mwohaeyo?)
음악을 들어요. (Eum-ag-eul deul-eoyo.)
음악을 들어요. (Eum-ag-eul deul-eoyo.) [enunciated]
음악을 들어요. (Eum-ag-eul deul-eoyo.)
Did you find the verb? The verb is this, 들어요 (deul-eoyo).
들어요 (deul-eoyo)
“I’m listening to music.”
So, 뭐해요? (Mwohaeyo?) is “What are you doing?”
음악을 들어요 (eum-ag-eul deul-eoyo) is “I’m listening to music.”
Oh, have you noticed? You cannot find this 들어요 (deul-eoyo) verb from this vocabulary? So, this vocabulary is using the dictionary form. So this is the original form, dictionary form, but when Korean people speak it, we don’t use this dictionary form, so we change the verb ending to make it sound more natural.
So if you use this dictionary form, it sounds like a written form. So when you write a diary, when you even write a comment, we use this 다 (da) form. Do you see? Every verb here or even adjectives end with 다 (da), but again, we don’t use this 다 (da) form directly in speaking.
So, to give you an idea, if a verb stem, this is a verb steam, so remove 다 (da) at the end and you have the verb stem left.
So last syllable of verb stem contains ㅏ(a) or ㅗ (o) sound, then you are going to add 아 (a) and 요 (yo).
If not, if it’s not ㅏ (a) or ㅗ (o) sound, then you’re gonna put 어요 (eoyo).
And if it’s 하다 (hada) verb, 하다 (hada) verb, it always becomes 해요 (haeyo).
You can find more details about this present tense and 요 (yo) form in our other lessons, but when I summarize it, it’s like this.
So, let’s look at this.
듣다 (deudda)
듣다 (deudda)
So, it’s 듣다 (deudda).
듣다 (deudda) “to listen, to hear”
So, it always ended with 다 (da), right?
Just remove 다 (da). 듣 (deud) is left.
듣 (deud)
듣 (deud)
듣 (deud)
듣 (deud) is a verb stem, so remove 다 (da) at the end, then you have the verb stem.
So, let’s look at this verb stem. How is the sound?
듣 (deud)
듣 (deud)
듣 (deud)
What’s the vowel sound? Is it ㅏ(a) or ㅗ (o) sound?
듣 (deud)
듣 (deud)
듣 (deud)
It’s ㅗ (o) sound, right?
듣 (deud)
So, we put 어요 (eoyo) here.
어요 (eoyo)
So, this is the original rule, but 듣다 (deudda) is an exception. It’s irregular verb, so this 듣 (deud) become 들 (deul), so it becomes 들어요 (deul-eoyo).
들어요 (deul-eoyo)
들어요 (deul-eoyo) [enunciated]
들어요 (deul-eoyo) [enunciated]
음악을 들어요. (Eum-ag-eul deul-eoyo.)
음악을 들어요 (Eum-ag-eul deul-eoyo) means “I’m listening to music.”
So again, these are the verbs and when we speak, we change the verb ending to something else. It can be this present tense or it can be past tense, we always change the verb ending.
So, here, we are using the polite informal speaking form 어요 (eoyo) / 해요 (haeyo) form and we use the “listen,” the verb.
Okay. So let’s look at more examples.
How about this?
책을 읽어요. (Chaeg-eul ilg-eoyo.)
책을 읽어요. (Chaeg-eul ilg-eoyo.)
Can you find the verb here?
읽어요 (ilg-eoyo)
So it means “I’m reading a book.”
Just remember, in Korean, this present tense can be used for present progressive tense. So something is happening right now, then you can use this present tense.
책 (chaeg) means “book.”
을 (eul) is particle, object-marking particle, so 책 (chaeg) becomes an object.
읽어요 (ilg-eoyo)
읽어요 (ilg-eoyo) is from 읽다 (ilgda).
This 읽다 (ilgda)
읽다 (ilgda)
Right, 읽다 (ilgda).
So, just remove 다 (da) at the end, then this is a verb stem, 읽 (ilg), 읽 (ilg), 읽 (ilg).
And, the vowel sound is ㅣ(e) sound. It’s not ㅏ(a) or it’s not ㅗ (o), so we are going to use 어요 (eoyo), so it’s 읽어요 (ilg-eoyo).
읽어요 (ilg-eoyo)
So, 책을 읽어요 (chaeg-eul ilg-eoyo) “I’m reading a book.”
How about this?
티비를 봐요. (Tibileul bwayo.)
What is the verb? The verb is 봐요 (bwayo).
티비를 봐요. (Tibileul bwayo.)
Oh, what is “watch”?
“To watch” in Korean is 보다 (boda), 보다 (boda).
It’s 보다 (boda).
Remove 다 (da) at the end, then you only have 보 (bo), 보 (bo), 보 (bo), 보 (bo).
What is the vowel sound?
보 (bo), ㅗ (o), ㅗ (o), ㅗ (o).
It’s ㅗ (o) sound, right?
So you say, 보아요 (boayo).
보아요 (boayo) is totally fine, it’s good, but Korean people often shorten it as 봐요 (bwayo).
So here, we used 봐요 (bwayo), but you can also say 보아요 (boayo), but a lot of Korean people more commonly use 봐요 (bwayo) because it’s short.
티비를 봐요. (Tibileul bwayo.)
티비 (tibi) is “TV.”
We use the English word “TV,” 티비 (tibi).
티비 (tibi)
를 봐요 (leul bwayo)
를 (leul), object-marking particle.
봐요 (bwayo) means “to watch.”
“I watch TV.”
“I’m watching TV.”
So either is okay.
Oh, have you noticed something?
I said, “object-marking particle,” right?
읽 (ilg)
를 (leul)
Both of them are object-marking particle, but they look different and they sound different too! Why?
읽 (ilg)
를 (leul)
읽 (ilg)
를 (leul)
Why? So let’s look at the sentence pattern.
So basically, this is what we are using now. So you just say [noun], the object, [noun]. For example, 음악 (eum-ag), 음악 (eum-ag) “music” and then say 을 (eul) or 들 (deul) and use [verb].
So this is the pattern that we are practicing today in [object] 음악 (eum-ag), 을 (eul), 들어요 (deul-eoyo). But here, we used 을 (eul). Why? Do you find something common here?
So, 음악 (eum-ag), 음악 (eum-ag), 음악 (eum-ag), do you see this? It has 받침 (badchim) “final consonant” ㄱ (g), ㄱ (g), ㄱ (g). It also has a final consonant, we call 받침 (badchim), 받침 (badchim).
티비 (tibi), 티비 (tibi), ㅣ (e), 티비 (tibi), it ended with vowel.
Right! So, if this noun ends with consonant, then you use 을 (eul).
If it ended with vowel, 티비 (tibi), 티비 (tibi), 비 (bi), ㅣ (e), it ended with a vowel, then we use 들 (deul).
So, you have to look at the noun carefully. Is it ending with a consonant or a vowel? So, depending on that, you use different object-marking particles here. So, in English, it will be just that “I [verb] [object].”
For example:
“I read a book.”
“I watch TV.”
“I like an apple.”
“I study Korean.”
“I buy a bag.”
So, in English, the word order is very important, but in Korean, to know this object, we just put 을 (eul) or 들 (deul) in the sentence. So, [object] 을 (eul) / 들 (deul) [verb].
So, this sentence pattern is used in this dialogue and this is how the Korean verb is used in the sentence. Korean verb comes at the end of the sentence.