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Lesson Transcript

안녕하세요 여러분. Koreanclass101.com 하나하나 한글시리즈의 에이미입니다. Hi, everybody! I’m Amy and welcome to Hana Hana Hangul on KoreanClass101.com - The fastest, easiest, and most fun way to learn Hangul, the Korean alphabet.
In the last lesson, we began to talk about some rules for pronouncing the 받침 bat-chim. There are seven rules and we covered the first two of them. We’re going to cover the next two today. Here we go!
This rule involves the combination of ㅎ(히읗/히읃) with ㄱ(기역), ㄷ(디읃), or ㅂ(비읍). Whenever one of those three consonants collides with ㅎ, it changes into its aspirated version and the ㅎ goes away.
Think of this rule as a variation of the first rule in the last lesson.
Remember the way that a batchim runs into an initial ㅇ(이응) and replaces it? It’s the same if the initial is a ㅎ(히읗), except as the ㅎ(히읗) is replaced, it leaves behind something extra: aspiration! 축하 / (slow) 축/카
The other difference is this: it doesn’t matter which consonant is the batchim and which is the initial. Even if the *batchim* is a ㅎ(히읗), it will affect the following consonant. What do you think will happen in this example?
In this word, the ㅎ(히읗) combines with the ㄷ (디읃) and makes it aspirated, so it becomes a ㅌ (티읕)sound. 놓다(노타) -> 녿/타
And here, the ㅂ(비읍역) combines with the ㅎ(히읗) to become a ㅍ. 답하다 -> 답/파/다
So whenever you see a ㅎ(히읗) running into another consonant sound, you know that you need to watch out for possible sound changes.
There are two parts to this rule.
To understand the first part, you need to know that three of the consonants are considered “nasally consonants”: ㅇ(이응), ㄴ(니은), and ㅁ(미음). Of course, ㅇ(이응) is only nasal if it’s in the batchim (받침) position.
So when one of these following sounds is in the batchim: ㄱ(기역), ㄷ(디읃), or ㅂ(비읍), and is followed by a nasal sound, they will become nasal themselves. ㄱ(기역) becomes ㅇ(이응), ㄷ(디읃) becomes ㄴ(니은), and ㅂ(비읍) becomes ㅁ(미음).
Let’s try it out.
We see a nasal consonant in the initial position of the second character. The previous batchim is one of the three consonants that is replaced. ㄱ(기역) becomes an ㅇ(이응) sound, so: 국/물(read it seperately) becomes 궁물
Here’s another example. We have a nasal consonant after a ㅂ in the batchim position. The ㅂ becomes a ㅁ. So 업/무 becomes 엄무
Here’s one more common word.
습니다. 습/니/다 becomes 슴니다.
The second part of this rule has to do with syllables beginning with ㄹ(리을). When any of these consonants -- ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, ㅇ, or ㅁ -- come before it, the ㄹ(리을) changes to a ㄴ(니은) sound. Notice that the characters involved in this part of the rule are the same used in the first part. Look at the following examples:
You see the ㄹ in an initial position, so now you need to check if the previous batchim is in the list. It is, so you change the ㄹ to a ㄴ. So 심/리 becomes 심-니
Easy so far, but don’t forget about the first part of this rule. There are some times when you will need to use both parts.
Try out this word. We need to change the ㄹ(리을) to a ㄴ(니은) sound, but look what happens as soon as we do that. That ㄴ(니은) is one of the nasally characters we need to watch out for in the first part of this rule. Remember what we have to do? The ㄱ becomes a ㅇ.
so 독/립 becomes 동/립(read it as 립)
Okay, this is the last example of the lesson. See if you can figure out how to pronounce it.
(short pause)
Change the ㄹ(리을) to a ㄴ(니은), and then the ㅂ to an ㅁ.
Got it? If you don’t understand why these rules exist, trying to say the word exactly as it is written can help you understand. These rules take combinations of consonants that are difficult to pronounce and make them easier.
Just one more lesson of these rules and you’ll be done with the hardest part of Hangul! Keep going strong and meet me in the next Hana Hana Hangul!
여러분 다음에 또 만나요.


Please to leave a comment.
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Friday at 6:30 pm
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Saturday at 3:52 am
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Hi philippe,

Thanks for posting and sorry for the confusion! When the nasal consonant ㅇ is the initial following the batchim ㄱ, ㄷ, and ㅂ, the batchim sound would take over the nasal consonant.




Hope this clears things up a bit.



Team KoreanClass101.com

Friday at 10:27 am
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hi i have question. for nasalization, you said that if the consonants ㄱ, ㄷ, and ㅂ are in batchim and are succeded by a nasal consonant like ㅇ in the initial position, they would become nasal themseleves. but in lenition, you also said that if any consonant is in the batchim and is succeded by ㅇ in the initial position, then the consonant would take over the place of the batchim. im quite confused. if i go by lenition, the 한국어 would be pronounced as 한구 거. but if i follow nasalization, it would become 한궁어, right? please help.

Tuesday at 9:55 am
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Hi ashley,

Thanks for posting. According to the National Institute of the Korean Language:

Assimilations and Alterations Related to ㄹ:

The batchim ㄱ followed by ㄹ becomes ㅇㄴ (격리-->경니)

The batchim ㅂ followed by ㄹ becomes ㅁㄴ (압력-->암녁)

The batchim ㅇ followed by ㄹ becomes ㅇㄴ (대통령-->대통녕)

These rules actually exist to make the pronunciation easier--if you say the original words very quickly you'll actually hear yourself pronouncing them the way you would according to the batchim rules).

Hope this was of help.



Team KoreanClass101.com

Sunday at 5:15 pm
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Hi, just a small confusion. 독립 changes to 동립 . okay but according to the last example , 압력 changes to amnyeok. How??????

Friday at 11:09 am
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Hi Jake,

Thanks for commenting. The rules of batchim show you how words are pronounced (this is not the correct way of writing the words--the words are written one way, but actually pronounced differently. Batchim rules are there to explain why the word and pronunciation do not match). So while you would pronounce it 추카, the correct way to write it is 축하.

Hope this was of help!



Team KoreanClass101.com

Monday at 12:27 pm
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I have a question with the Aspiration rule. Take the word congratulation that you gave us. The first version of congratulations is meant to be wrong (축하) and the ㄱ is supposed to replace the ㅎ and also become aspirated (ㅋ). So the correct version is

추 카 ? But when i type is in google translate it is 축하 and the first word you gave us of 'congratulations is 축하. So which version is correct?

Friday at 12:49 pm
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Hi Mart,

Thanks for posting. Actually, the batchim ㄱ in 압력 does sound like 'apryeok'.

Was there an instance where you heard it otherwise? If so could you let me know?



Team KoreanClass101.com

Monday at 5:58 am
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Dear Lyn,

Why is the ''ㄱ'' not being spoken as a ''g/k'' at the end of ''압력'' (pressure)

Kind regards

Saturday at 10:07 pm
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Hello Jess,

Thank you so much for your comment, and I'm happy to see your question.

The number 2 rule of batchim (fortis) is applied to plain consonants like [ㄱ,ㄷ,ㅂ,ㅅ,ㅈ] that can be doubled and turn into consonants with tense sounds(fortis) like [ㄲ,ㄸ,ㅃ,ㅆ,ㅉ]. Thus, the number 2 rule is not applied to the word [업무]. Hope it helped!



Team KoreanClass101.com

Monday at 12:21 am
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Hello, just a quick question-

For the ㅁ consanant would this be doubled if it contains it in the batchim before?

For example, you included the word 업무 in your lesson and you changed it to 엄무 because of rule 4, however following rule 2, since ㅁ is a consanant wouldn't that be doubled too or am I making it up?

Thank you!