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Lesson Transcript

안녕하세요 여러분. Koreanclass101.com 하나하나 한글시리즈의 에이미입니다. Hi, everybody! I’m Amy and welcome to Hana Hana Hangul on KoreanClass101.com - The fastest, easiest, and most fun way to learn Hangul, the Korean alphabet.
In the last lesson, we introduced the batchim position -- consonants at the end of syllables in Korean. We already saw some of the tricky ways consonants change their sound when they’re in that position.
Now we’re going to explain what happens when two consonant sounds run into each other.
There are seven basic rules, as shown here.
Some scary names, right? But after you see some examples, I think you’ll understand why they exist, and how to use them without needing to memorize any linguistic terms!
Remember, all of these rules help the Korean language to be *easier* to pronounce. They take some getting used to, but they’re worth the effort to learn.
One important note: all of these rules affect how syllables are read.
For the examples, I will write the way words *sound* in blue. The characters aren’t actually changed, but just pronounced differently depending on these rules.
Okay? Here’s the first batchim rule:
This rule involves syllables with a batchim coming before a syllable with an ㅇ (이응) in the initial position.
Remember how the ㅇ (이응) in the initial position is just a placeholder and doesn’t have any sound? So when this happens, the consonant in the bat-chim position *replaces* the ㅇ(이응). Imagine it this way: Korean syllables *like* to begin with a consonant sound. So if it’s beginning with an ㅇ (이응) and sees that the previous syllable has a batchim, it will steal it and use it as its own initial.
Here’s an important word. It’s 한국어 meaning “the Korean language.” If you pronounce it syllable-by-syllable, it would be han(한)-guk(국)-eo(어). But because the last syllable starts with an ㅇ(이응), and the syllable before that has a bat-chim, so the batchim ㄱ(기역) would replace the ㅇ(이응).
Now two things happen: First, the last syllable now starts with a consonant sound instead of a vowel sound. From “eo(어)” to “geo(거)”.
The sound that this ㄱ makes changes from a to a sound because it’s moving from bat-chim to the initial positon. Not han-gu-keo(한구/커), it’s han-gu-geo(한구거).
There will be some complicated rules today, but eventually they will become second nature to you. Just keep listening to natural Korean and it will soon feel *right* to say han-gu-geo(한구거) instead of han-guk-eo(한구/커).
So with this rule, you really need to keep track of what we learned in the last lesson: how certain consonants change their sound when they’re in the batchim instead of the initial position.
For example, we learned last lesson that all of these consonants sound like ㄷ(드/디읃) when they’re in the batchim position. But if they get moved to the initial position by this rule, they change back. So 옷은 would not be pronounced od-eun(오든), but 오슨 (o-seun).
Test how much you understand this rule by trying to read this word...Got it? It’s 낮은곳[나즌곧] not 나든곧.
This rule is pretty simple, and has two parts. First, if a batchim batchim and the following initial consonant are the same sound, the initial consonant becomes doubled.
This is easy to see in the following words. 듣다 and 학교. But it can be a little trickier when the consonants are different, but have the same sound.
Remember that batchim ㅆ(쓰) is the read the same as ㄷ(드) when it’s in the batchim, so you need to remember to apply this rule here: 있다.
There’s one more part to this rule.
The emphasized initial consonant not only happens when the consonants make the same sound, but also if ㄱ(기역), ㄷ(디읃), or ㅂ(비읍) is in the batchim position. No matter what the following initial is, if can be doubled, it will be.
먹/따 - 먹다
학/쌩 - 학생
갑/짜/기 - 갑자기
Two rules down, five more to go. In the next lesson, we’ll continue this discussion of a difficult but very important part of learning Hangul.
See you on the next Hana Hana Hangul! 여러분 다음에 또 만나요.

130 Comments

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😄 😞 😳 😁 😒 😎 😠 😆 😅 😜 😉 😭 😇 😴 😮 😈 ❤️️ 👍

KoreanClass101.comVerified
Friday at 6:30 pm
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KoreanClass101.comVerified
Thursday at 6:06 am
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Hi Thanawin,


Thanks for posting. Yes, it does apply to consecutive words:


눈앞에-->누나페


Cheers,

Lyn

Team KoreanClass101.com

Thanawin
Tuesday at 1:29 am
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Hi!

Just a quick question. Does the "Lenition rule" apply to consecutive words?

Is 눈앞에 pronounced as 노나페?

Jessica
Wednesday at 2:18 pm
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Hi! What if the world has ㅅ for the batchim and the next consonant? Like something like 잇사. Do you pronounce it 이싸 or 읻싸?

KoreanClass101.comVerified
Tuesday at 2:57 am
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Hi Arohi,


Thanks for posting. Until a few years ago the romanization was hakkyo. However, there has been a revision in the Korean romanization to make the romanization easier to read/understand. This is why the romanization for 학교 is now 'hakgyo'. This link may be of help:


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revised_Romanization_of_Korean


Cheers,

Lyn

Team KoreanClass101.com

Arohi
Thursday at 10:38 pm
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In the fortis you've mentioned that batchim will get doubled wherever it should be. But what is the need? It's still pronounced in that way.

Plus hangul for school is 학교 why haven't you write it by doubling?

Please tell

KoreanClass101.comVerified
Friday at 6:02 am
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Hi Charlotte,


Thanks for posting. This is due to the rules of batchim, or syllables that end with consonants. You can find a lesson series focusing on this here:


https://www.koreanclass101.com/lesson/hana-hana-hangul-11-hangul-batchim-1/


Cheers,

Lyn

Team KoreanClass101.com

Charlotte Oh
Tuesday at 3:32 am
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Hi! I am very confused on the word bangapsseumnida. Shouldn't it be bangapsseupmnida? Why does the second batchim bieup change to mieum?

KoreanClass101.com
Saturday at 5:02 am
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Hi Arnoldas,


Sorry for the typo--it happened due to an auto correction. My apologies!


Best,

Lyn

Team KoreanClass101.com


KoreanClass101.com
Saturday at 5:01 am
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Hi Anodes,


Thanks for commenting. In actuality, the consonant ㄱ is actually a sound that is closer to the 'g' sound in English, but is actually a sound that is somewhere in between a 'g' and a 'k' sound (but softer than the actual 'k' sound). This is why it sounds a bit more stronger when it is at the initial and a bit softer when it is in between syllables (try pronouncing it quickly within a sentence and you will see what we mean). It is a naturally way of pronouncing how things actually sound, as we explained in the lesson.

We hope this explanation is of help.


Cheers,

Lyn

Team KoreanClass101.com

Arnoldas
Sunday at 1:50 am
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Hi!


I am wondering why [ㄱ] sound would change when it's moving from bat-chim position to initial consonant (first example with lentition)? According to previous lessons [ㄱ] sounds more like [k] only in the beginning of the word, but in bat-chim it's always ㄱ/ㅋ/ㄲ pronounced as [ㄱ], so based on this they should sound the same at both places.