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Lesson Transcript

안녕하세요 여러분. Koreanclass101.com 하나하나 한글시리즈의 에이미입니다. Hi, everybody! I’m Amy and welcome to Hana Hana Hangul on KoreanClass101.com - The fastest, easiest, and most fun way to learn Hangul, the Korean alphabet.
In the last lesson, we introduced the batchim position -- consonants at the end of syllables in Korean. We already saw some of the tricky ways consonants change their sound when they’re in that position.
Now we’re going to explain what happens when two consonant sounds run into each other.
There are seven basic rules, as shown here.
Some scary names, right? But after you see some examples, I think you’ll understand why they exist, and how to use them without needing to memorize any linguistic terms!
Remember, all of these rules help the Korean language to be *easier* to pronounce. They take some getting used to, but they’re worth the effort to learn.
One important note: all of these rules affect how syllables are read.
For the examples, I will write the way words *sound* in blue. The characters aren’t actually changed, but just pronounced differently depending on these rules.
Okay? Here’s the first batchim rule:
This rule involves syllables with a batchim coming before a syllable with an ㅇ (이응) in the initial position.
Remember how the ㅇ (이응) in the initial position is just a placeholder and doesn’t have any sound? So when this happens, the consonant in the bat-chim position *replaces* the ㅇ(이응). Imagine it this way: Korean syllables *like* to begin with a consonant sound. So if it’s beginning with an ㅇ (이응) and sees that the previous syllable has a batchim, it will steal it and use it as its own initial.
Here’s an important word. It’s 한국어 meaning “the Korean language.” If you pronounce it syllable-by-syllable, it would be han(한)-guk(국)-eo(어). But because the last syllable starts with an ㅇ(이응), and the syllable before that has a bat-chim, so the batchim ㄱ(기역) would replace the ㅇ(이응).
Now two things happen: First, the last syllable now starts with a consonant sound instead of a vowel sound. From “eo(어)” to “geo(거)”.
The sound that this ㄱ makes changes from a to a sound because it’s moving from bat-chim to the initial positon. Not han-gu-keo(한구/커), it’s han-gu-geo(한구거).
There will be some complicated rules today, but eventually they will become second nature to you. Just keep listening to natural Korean and it will soon feel *right* to say han-gu-geo(한구거) instead of han-guk-eo(한구/커).
So with this rule, you really need to keep track of what we learned in the last lesson: how certain consonants change their sound when they’re in the batchim instead of the initial position.
For example, we learned last lesson that all of these consonants sound like ㄷ(드/디읃) when they’re in the batchim position. But if they get moved to the initial position by this rule, they change back. So 옷은 would not be pronounced od-eun(오든), but 오슨 (o-seun).
Test how much you understand this rule by trying to read this word...Got it? It’s 낮은곳[나즌곧] not 나든곧.
This rule is pretty simple, and has two parts. First, if a batchim batchim and the following initial consonant are the same sound, the initial consonant becomes doubled.
This is easy to see in the following words. 듣다 and 학교. But it can be a little trickier when the consonants are different, but have the same sound.
Remember that batchim ㅆ(쓰) is the read the same as ㄷ(드) when it’s in the batchim, so you need to remember to apply this rule here: 있다.
There’s one more part to this rule.
The emphasized initial consonant not only happens when the consonants make the same sound, but also if ㄱ(기역), ㄷ(디읃), or ㅂ(비읍) is in the batchim position. No matter what the following initial is, if can be doubled, it will be.
먹/따 - 먹다
학/쌩 - 학생
갑/짜/기 - 갑자기
Two rules down, five more to go. In the next lesson, we’ll continue this discussion of a difficult but very important part of learning Hangul.
See you on the next Hana Hana Hangul! 여러분 다음에 또 만나요.

142 Comments

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😄 😞 😳 😁 😒 😎 😠 😆 😅 😜 😉 😭 😇 😴 😮 😈 ❤️️ 👍

KoreanClass101.com Verified
Friday at 06:30 PM
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KoreanClass101.com Verified
Monday at 05:19 PM
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Hi KimmieA,


Thank you for posting. If it is giving you a hard time, how about moving on to other lessons--you'll see a lot of vowels and consonants within the vocabulary you come across, so you can go over it as you learn something else.


Hope this was of some help.

Cheers,

Lyn

Team KoreanClass101.com

KimmieA
Thursday at 11:57 AM
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Hi. I am an absolute beginner--this is my 4th day--with no previous exposure to Hangul or Korean language, and I am wondering, how important is this to learn in the first few weeks? Already I am having trouble remembering all the vowels and consonants! I practice everyday, I write, I repeat, I listen, but it is very difficult for me to learn all this so quickly. I can't even sound out anything but very simple 2- and 3- "letter" words like 'ne" for 'yes'.


Should I come back to this later, when my brain understands the basic alphabet better? This is very discouraging. I came to this site to learn conversational Korean but it seems all written grammar and it is overwhelming.

KoreanClass101.com Verified
Tuesday at 05:44 AM
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Hi smalljude 작은주드,


Thanks for posting. This is a difficult rule to understand right? 😄 Native Koreans take these rules for granted but it can be tricky for people learning Korean as a second language.

Having said that, according to the 'standard pronunciation rule #1' by the National Institute of Korean Language, you pronounce the words according to how it is actually pronounced. The institute designated the pronunciation of 맛없다 as '마덥따' to make it as close to the actual pronunciation as well as how it is written.

(Try pronouncing it both ways and you will find that it is easier to pronounce it as 마덥따 rather than 마섭따).


Hope this was of help.

Best,

Lyn

Team KoreanClass101.com

KoreanClass101.com Verified
Tuesday at 05:34 AM
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Hi Laura,


Thanks for posting. Yes in the case of fortis, the latter is pronounced as a double consonant. In the case of the nasal consonant 'ㅁ', you would just pronounce it as ㅁㅁ (as there is no double consonant for it):

엄마-->eomma, not eommma.


Hope this was of help.

Cheers,

Lyn

Team KoreanClass101.com

Laura
Sunday at 10:27 AM
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Hi!


So in the fortis rule, if the bat-chim and the first letter of the following syllable are the same, the letter is pronounced as a double consonant, but not all consonants have doubled versions. Will they still be pronounced as a double consonant?


For example, if ㅁ is the bat-chim and the next syllable starts with a ㅁ as well, will they be pronounced as a double version of ㅁ even if that doesn't exist otherwise?


Sorry for the confusingly worded question!

KoreanClass101.com Verified
Saturday at 11:59 AM
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Hi Zak,


Thank you for posting.

May I ask you and your friend to clear the cache and cookies from your browsers? Then please open the video again and see if there are still differences.


If you keep having trouble, please send us an email to: contactus@KoreanClass101.com


Regards,

Laura

Team KoreanClass101.com

smalljude 작은주드
Saturday at 06:53 AM
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Hi,my question is a bit like Diana's below.


I'm wondering about the pronunciation of the word 맛없다 It sounds (to my ear) like it's being pronounced as 마덥다 with the batchim ㅅ changing to a ㄷ sound and moving to the initial position of the 2nd syllable. I'm confused though, because the answer below says that "When followed by the placeholder consonant ㅇ, the original batchim sound of the previous syllable will take over the position--which is why 있어요-->이써요 and not 이더요."


So if the original batchim sound moves to the 2nd syllable, why doesn't the word sound like 마섭다 ? I'm sure I'm missing something obvious :P


thanks so much, loving your lessons :)

KoreanClass101.com Verified
Tuesday at 07:48 AM
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Hi Yen,


Thanks for posting. Fortis is when the batchim consonant and the consonant that follows it is the same, then it becomes doubled. Example:


받다-->바따

족구-->조꾸

있다-->이따

학교-->하꾜


It also means that with the exception of nasal consonants, if the batchim sound is ㄱ(기역), ㄷ(디읃), or ㅂ(비읍), the consonant sound following it will be doubled:


학생-->학쌩

-->닫고-->닫꼬


Hope this helped.

Best,

Lyn

Team KoreanClass101.com

KoreanClass101.com Verified
Tuesday at 07:17 AM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Hi Diana,


Thanks for posting. When followed by the placeholder consonant ㅇ, the original batchim sound of the previous syllable will take over the position--which is why 있어요-->이써요 and not 이더요.

Keep in mind that batchim rules exist to show you how things end up being pronounced. I know, complicated, but with practice it will get easier.


Cheers,

Lyn

Team KoreanClass101.com

Zak
Monday at 07:01 PM
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Hello, I've been studying with a friend and we use screenshare to watch the videos online together (we both have our own account). It's been going well until we got to this video in particular, where certain parts are not the same as each other, but the web address and title are the exact same. Sometimes, for example, it says that 한국어 = Korean language on her video, but for my video no such box appears. Later on in the video there are more differences, such as it showing her the correct pronunciation of a word, but for me it does not show in letters how to pronounce the word at all. It's very odd / frustrating