Learn New Words FAST with this Lesson’s Vocab Review List

Get this lesson’s key vocab, their translations and pronunciations. Sign up for your Free Lifetime Account Now and get 7 Days of Premium Access including this feature.

Or sign up using Facebook
Already a Member?

Lesson Notes

Unlock In-Depth Explanations & Exclusive Takeaways with Printable Lesson Notes

Unlock Lesson Notes and Transcripts for every single lesson. Sign Up for a Free Lifetime Account and Get 7 Days of Premium Access.

Or sign up using Facebook
Already a Member?

Lesson Transcript

안녕하세요 여러분. Koreanclass101.com 하나하나 한글시리즈의 에이미입니다. Hi, everybody! I’m Amy and welcome to Hana Hana Hangul on KoreanClass101.com - The fastest, easiest, and most fun way to learn Hangul, the Korean alphabet.
In the last lesson, we introduced the batchim position -- consonants at the end of syllables in Korean. We already saw some of the tricky ways consonants change their sound when they’re in that position.
Now we’re going to explain what happens when two consonant sounds run into each other.
There are seven basic rules, as shown here.
Some scary names, right? But after you see some examples, I think you’ll understand why they exist, and how to use them without needing to memorize any linguistic terms!
Remember, all of these rules help the Korean language to be *easier* to pronounce. They take some getting used to, but they’re worth the effort to learn.
One important note: all of these rules affect how syllables are read.
For the examples, I will write the way words *sound* in blue. The characters aren’t actually changed, but just pronounced differently depending on these rules.
Okay? Here’s the first batchim rule:
This rule involves syllables with a batchim coming before a syllable with an ㅇ (이응) in the initial position.
Remember how the ㅇ (이응) in the initial position is just a placeholder and doesn’t have any sound? So when this happens, the consonant in the bat-chim position *replaces* the ㅇ(이응). Imagine it this way: Korean syllables *like* to begin with a consonant sound. So if it’s beginning with an ㅇ (이응) and sees that the previous syllable has a batchim, it will steal it and use it as its own initial.
Here’s an important word. It’s 한국어 meaning “the Korean language.” If you pronounce it syllable-by-syllable, it would be han(한)-guk(국)-eo(어). But because the last syllable starts with an ㅇ(이응), and the syllable before that has a bat-chim, so the batchim ㄱ(기역) would replace the ㅇ(이응).
Now two things happen: First, the last syllable now starts with a consonant sound instead of a vowel sound. From “eo(어)” to “geo(거)”.
The sound that this ㄱ makes changes from a to a sound because it’s moving from bat-chim to the initial positon. Not han-gu-keo(한구/커), it’s han-gu-geo(한구거).
There will be some complicated rules today, but eventually they will become second nature to you. Just keep listening to natural Korean and it will soon feel *right* to say han-gu-geo(한구거) instead of han-guk-eo(한구/커).
So with this rule, you really need to keep track of what we learned in the last lesson: how certain consonants change their sound when they’re in the batchim instead of the initial position.
For example, we learned last lesson that all of these consonants sound like ㄷ(드/디읃) when they’re in the batchim position. But if they get moved to the initial position by this rule, they change back. So 옷은 would not be pronounced od-eun(오든), but 오슨 (o-seun).
Test how much you understand this rule by trying to read this word...Got it? It’s 낮은곳[나즌곧] not 나든곧.
This rule is pretty simple, and has two parts. First, if a batchim batchim and the following initial consonant are the same sound, the initial consonant becomes doubled.
This is easy to see in the following words. 듣다 and 학교. But it can be a little trickier when the consonants are different, but have the same sound.
Remember that batchim ㅆ(쓰) is the read the same as ㄷ(드) when it’s in the batchim, so you need to remember to apply this rule here: 있다.
There’s one more part to this rule.
The emphasized initial consonant not only happens when the consonants make the same sound, but also if ㄱ(기역), ㄷ(디읃), or ㅂ(비읍) is in the batchim position. No matter what the following initial is, if can be doubled, it will be.
먹/따 - 먹다
학/쌩 - 학생
갑/짜/기 - 갑자기
Two rules down, five more to go. In the next lesson, we’ll continue this discussion of a difficult but very important part of learning Hangul.
See you on the next Hana Hana Hangul! 여러분 다음에 또 만나요.


Please to leave a comment.
😄 😞 😳 😁 😒 😎 😠 😆 😅 😜 😉 😭 😇 😴 😮 😈 ❤️️ 👍

KoreanClass101.com Verified
Friday at 06:30 PM
Pinned Comment
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

KoreanClass101.com Verified
Thursday at 03:50 AM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Hi 수진,

Thanks for commenting. I'm glad you were able to figure it out, great job!

Please let us know if you have any other questions.



Team KoreanClass101.com

Monday at 01:21 AM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Oh please ignore my previous comment. I figured it out now, the next consonant will be double not those consonant themselves. Sorry.

Monday at 01:14 AM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.


I am a little confused on the Basic Rule #1 on Batchim mentioned in the previous lesson and Fortis mentioned here.

Lesson 13: Hangul Bat-chim 2

1. If you see a strengthened consonant in the batchim, remove the strength from it.

Lesson 14: Hangul Bat-chim Rules 1: Lenition and Fortis

2. Fortis: When ㄱ,ㄷ,ㅂ are the consonants either in the batchim position, the next consonant gets doubled.

From this Lesson 13, the strengthened consonant were ㄱ, ㄷ and ㅂ. It says, remove the strength. But from here, Lesson 14, all those consonant ㄱ, ㄷ and ㅂ can be doubled, so we double it. It confuses me because it looks contradicting to me right now. Hoping for some clarification here.

KoreanClass101.com Verified
Thursday at 01:09 AM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Hi Dania,

Thank you for posting. Usually, at an initial position, the consonant will have a stronger sound.



Team KoreanClass101.com

Thursday at 02:46 AM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Just for clarification, are the consonants that have a hard sound at the beginning of a word or syllable?

Monday at 02:22 PM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.


The videos have not been working for me

I would like some help

Thank you! :)

KoreanClass101.com Verified
Saturday at 03:46 AM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Hi 줄리,

Thanks for posting. Yes, batchim rules exist to make pronunciation *easier* (you'll end up pronouncing things according to the batchim rules if you pronounce it really quickly). Glad to hear the lesson was of help!



Team KoreanClass101.com

Tuesday at 03:09 AM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.


As I pronounce the example words given in this and the previous lesson, I can see how the rules show what seems to come out as a natural pronunciation of the Korean words. That will definitely make it easier to remember and internalize the rules. 😁

감사합니다! 좋은 하루 되세요! 👍

KoreanClass101.com Verified
Monday at 05:19 PM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Hi KimmieA,

Thank you for posting. If it is giving you a hard time, how about moving on to other lessons--you'll see a lot of vowels and consonants within the vocabulary you come across, so you can go over it as you learn something else.

Hope this was of some help.



Team KoreanClass101.com

Thursday at 11:57 AM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Hi. I am an absolute beginner--this is my 4th day--with no previous exposure to Hangul or Korean language, and I am wondering, how important is this to learn in the first few weeks? Already I am having trouble remembering all the vowels and consonants! I practice everyday, I write, I repeat, I listen, but it is very difficult for me to learn all this so quickly. I can't even sound out anything but very simple 2- and 3- "letter" words like 'ne" for 'yes'.

Should I come back to this later, when my brain understands the basic alphabet better? This is very discouraging. I came to this site to learn conversational Korean but it seems all written grammar and it is overwhelming.