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Let's take a closer look at the conversation.
Do you remember how Sasha Morris says,
"Excuse me, do you have any salt?"
저기요, 소금 있어요? (Jeo-gi-yo, so-geum iss-eo-yo?)
This starts with 저기요 (Jeo-gi-yo), "Excuse me." 저기요 (Jeo-gi-yo).
저기 (jeo-gi), literally, "over there." It refers to a place that is a bit away from the speaker. It can also be used to call a person, as in the dialogue. 저기. 저기.
Next is 요 (yo), a polite, informal sentence ending. 요 요.
Note, adding 요 (yo) at the end of a sentence makes it more polite.
All together 저기요 (Jeo-gi-yo), literally means "over there", but it translates as "excuse me."
Next is 소금 (so-geum), "salt." 소금. 소금.
Note: the subject-marking particle 이(i), in this case, which would mark 소금 (so-geum), "salt," as the subject of the sentence, is omitted. In spoken Korean, speakers tend to omit particles when it's clear which particle would be used.
After this is 있어요? (iss-eo-yo?), which translates as "do you have" in this context. 있어요. 있어요.
Translation note: 있어요 could also translate as "Is there," as in "Is there any salt?"
있어요 is the informal-polite form of 있다 (it-da), meaning "to exist, to be, or to have." 있다.
Together, it's 소금 있어요? (So-geum iss-eo-yo?) This literally means "Salt [you] have?" but it translates as "[Do you] have [any] salt?" 소금 있어요?
Note the rising intonation that indicates this is a question. Listen again.
저기요, 소금 있어요? (Jeo-gi-yo, so-geum iss-eo-yo?)
Let's take a closer look at the response.
Do you remember how the clerk says,
"Yes, it's here."
네, 여기 있어요. (Ne, yeo-gi iss-eo-yo.)
First is 네 (ne), "yes." 네. 네.
The shop clerk responds with 네, "yes," to answer Sasha's question.
After this the clerk says, 여기 있어요 (yeo-gi iss-eo-yo), translating as, "It's here." 여기 있어요 (yeo-gi iss-eo-yo).
Note, the clerk is pointing while saying this.
First is 여기 (yeo-gi), meaning "here." 여기. 여기.
Next is 있어요 (iss-eo-yo), translating as, "It's," in this context. 있어요.
Recall, 있어요 is the informal-polite form of 있다 (it-da), meaning "to exist, to be, or to have," in this context. 있다.
Note the intonation. Without the rising intonation, the statement is declarative.
All together, it's 네, 여기 있어요. (Ne, yeo-gi iss-eo-yo.) This literally means, "Yes, here [it] is." but translates as "Yes, it's here."
네, 여기 있어요.
The pattern is
{ITEM} 있어요? (iss-eo-yo?)
Do you have {ITEM}?
{ITEM} 있어요? (iss-eo-yo?)
To use this pattern, simply replace the {ITEM} placeholder with the thing you're looking for.
Imagine you're looking for milk.
우유 (u-yu). 우유. 우유.
"Do you have milk?"
우유 있어요? (U-yu iss-eo-yo?)
"Do you have milk?"
우유 있어요? (U-yu iss-eo-yo?)
In most cases, Korean doesn't make a distinction between singular and plural nouns. You'll use the same pattern when you're looking for salt, or an apple, or a dozen apples.
For example, 사과 있어요? (Sa-gwa iss-eo-yo?) can translate as "Are there any apples?" Or "Is there an apple?" depending on the number of apples.
The English translation may alternate between singular and plural, but the Korean pattern remains the same.