Lesson Transcript

Hi, everyone! Welcome to the Ask K-Jin. My name is K-Jin, 안녕하세요, K-Jin입니다. (An-nyeong-ha-se-yo, ke-i-jin-im-ni-da.)
In this series, I'll answer your Korean questions.
Today I picked questions related to similar Korean particles.
What are the differences among 이랑 (irang), 하고 (hago), and 와 (wa) / 과 (gwa)?
All of these words mean and.
By the way, in English, and has many, many, many meanings.
You can use it between verbs, between adjectives, or at the beginning of the sentence, or between nouns.
But here, these words can be only used with nouns. Here are some examples.
수박이랑 딸기 (subag irang ddalgi)
수박 (subag) means watermelon, and 딸기 (ddalgi) means strawberry, and 이랑 (irang) means and.
In English, it just means watermelon and strawberry, or watermelons and strawberries.
수박이랑 딸기 (subag irang ddalgi), like this.
You can only use this 이랑 (irang) or 랑 (rang) with nouns.
Not only this word, but 하고 (hago) and 와/과 (wa/gwa), too.
So let me write it down for you.
수박하고 딸기 (subag hago ddalgi)
수박과 딸기 (subag gwa ddalgi)
So all of these means the same, exactly same. So watermelons and strawberries. But the differences are this.
짠 (jjan), 이랑 (irang) and 하고 (hago), these two words are very colloquial.
So I use 이랑 (irang) and 하고 (hago) a lot when I speak.
And what's the difference between 이랑 (irang) and 하고 (hago), then, if both of them are colloquial?
이랑 (irang) sounds even more casual, and 하고 (hago), 하고 (hago), well, is less casual.
Still, you can use it in casual situations, but 이랑 (irang) just sounds more, even more, much more casual.
So this is very casual and colloquial, 하고 (hago) is, well, it's just colloquial.
Then, what is 와/과 (wa/gwa)?
와/과 (wa/gwa), 와/과 (wa/gwa), this is very formal.
So when I speak, I don't really use 와 (wa) and 과 (gwa).
Unless I'm giving a professional presentation, or I'm writing a professional email.
I don't really use 와 (wa) and 과 (gwa) when I speak.
So 이랑 (irang) and 하고 (hago) are very important for you.
And if you are a beginner, I think 하고 (hago) would be easier, because the conjugation is simple.
It doesn't matter if the words end with a vowel or consonant, you just put 하고 (hago) after a word, 수박하고 딸기 (subag hago ddalgi).
But if you use 이랑 (irang), now it's confusing.
So for example, you see 수박이랑 딸기 (subag irang ddalgi) here, right?
수박이랑 딸기 (subag irang ddalgi), I used 이랑 (irang) because 수박 (subag), 수박 (subag) ended with consonant, 수박 (subag), so I used 이랑 (irang) here.
But imagine I wanted to say strawberries and watermelon.
딸기랑 수박 (ddalgi rang subag), 딸기랑 수박 (ddalgi rang subag), 딸기 (ddalgi), strawberry, 랑 (rang), and 수박 (subag), watermelon.
Now I didn't use 이랑 (irang), but I used 랑 (rang).
It's because 딸기 (ddalgi), 딸기 (ddalgi), it ended with a vowel sound, so I'm using 랑 (rang).
So there are two words, 이랑 (irang) and 랑 (rang), 이랑 (irang) and 랑 (rang).
And you use 이랑 (irang) if the word coming here ends with consonant.
And if the words here end with a vowel sound, then you use 랑 (rang).
And 하고 (hago) doesn't matter if it ends with a consonant or a vowel, you just put 하고 (hago) after the noun.
And now you have 자, 과 (ja, gwa) here, 와 (wa) and 과 (gwa), 와 (wa) and 과 (gwa), as you see here.
So there are two words, and I believe you can see the differences.
So 딸기와 수박 (ddalgiwa subak), you don't need to put a space here.
So 수박 (subak), 수박 (subak) ended with a consonant, so you use 과 (gwa).
수박과 딸기 (subakgwa ddalgi), and 딸기 (ddalgi) ended with a vowel sound, so I'm using 와 (wa) here.
So in Korean, there are many ways to say end, to conjugate nouns, to connect nouns.
이랑 (irang), 하고 (hago), 와/과 (wa/gwa), 이랑 (irang) and 하고 (hago), those are very colloquial.
이랑 (irang) is very casual, 와/과 (wa/gwa) is very formal.
So these are the differences.
Here's the second question.
What are the differences between subject marking particles, 이 (i), 가 (ga), and topic marking particles, 은 (eun), 는 (neun)?
Subject marking particles and topic marking particles are sometimes used in a similar way.
That's why it's confusing.
Today I'm going to focus on the differences.
So I assume that you already know what are subject marking particles and topic marking particles, right?
If not, check out my previous video on our website about these particles, or let me quickly review for you, really quickly.
So we have this subject marking particle, 이 (i) and 가 (ga).
We use these particles before a noun. So let's see.
수박 (subak), watermelon, 이 (i). We use 이 (i) before a word ending with a consonant, 수박이 (subaki).
And we use 딸기 (ddalgi).
We put noun before 가 (ga) if the noun ends with a vowel, as in 딸기가 (ddalgiga).
So these subject marking particles basically mark the subject of the sentence, which means 수박 (subak) is the subject of the sentence.
딸기 (ddalgi) is the subject of the sentence. That's it.
Then what is 은 (eun), 는 (neun)?
So 수박은 (subakeun) 딸기는 (ddalgineun).
Now you know why I used 은 (eun) here and 는 (neun) here, right?
So 은 (eun) and 는 (neun) are called topic marking particles.
And 수박 (subak), 수박 (subak), it ends with a consonant, so I'm using 은 (eun) here.
딸기 (ddalgi) ends with a vowel, so I'm using 는 (neun) here.
So 수박 (subak), 수박 (subak) here is the topic of the sentence because I'm marking 수박 (subak) as the topic of the sentence using 은.
And here the topic of the sentence is 딸기 (ddalgi), 딸기 (ddalgi) because I marked 딸기 (ddalgi) with 는 (neun), the topic marking particle.
Okay, so now you know what is subject marking particles and topic marking particles briefly.
Actually these particles are, it has more and more meanings, so you definitely need to check out our lessons on KoreanClass101, but this is really really really quick and brief explanation.
So let's focus on the differences in this lesson.
So 짠 (jjan), if I use the subject marking particles, that means I'm giving the emphasis to the subject of the sentence, 수박 (subak), 딸기 (ttalgi).
This is the important part, important word that I want to emphasize in this sentence, so that's the subject marking particles.
And how about topic marking particles?
So topic marking particle, well this is the topic of the sentence, but what I want to emphasize is the predicate.
Predicate means the part, the part after the particle here, so blah blah blah blah here.
This is the part that I want to emphasize, this is the important part when I use the topic marking particle.
And here, here when I use the subject marking particle, I emphasize this part, this part.
So let me show you the differences with the example.
짠 (jjan), we have this example, 이 사과가 맛있어요 (i sagwaga masisseoyo).
이 (i) means this, and 사과 (sagwa) means an apple, 가 (ga), subject marking particle, and 맛있어요 (masisseoyo) means delicious.
So this sentence means this apple is delicious. 이 사과가 맛있어요 (i sagwaga masisseoyo).
How about this sentence? 이 사과는 맛있어요 (i sagwaneun masisseoyo).
It means this apple is delicious, basically both of them mean the same, but the nuance is different.
이 사과가 맛있어요 (i sagwaga masisseoyo). I'm emphasizing this apple in this sentence.
So I'm saying, hey, I know there are many apples, but this apple is the one which is delicious.
This is the apple, which is delicious, so I'm emphasizing this apple, this apple.
Now 이 사과는 맛있어요 (i sagwaneun masisseoyo). By using the topic marking particle, now I'm emphasizing this.
You know this apple is delicious. Yes, it's delicious.
So there's a slight difference in the nuance. I'm giving the emphasis.
짠 (jjan), this noun before the subject marking particle, 이 사과 (i sagwa).
And now if I use the topic marking particle, you know that I'm emphasizing this part, delicious, delicious.
So that's the difference.
And there's another difference here too.
짠 (jjan), 저기에 제 동생이 있어요 (jeogi-e je dongsaeng-i isseoyo).
What does that mean? 저기 (jeogi), over there, and 에 (e) is the location marking particle.
So it means just in that place or just over there, over there, 제 동생 (je dongsaeng), 제 (je) means my, it's a humble way to say my.
동생 (dongsaeng), younger sibling. I don't know if it's a younger brother or younger sister.
To Korean people, it doesn't really matter. So 동생 (dongsaeng) means younger sibling.
이 (i), subject marking particle.
있어요 (isseoyo), 있어요 (isseoyo) means there is. So it means there is my younger sibling over there.
제 동생 (je dongsaeng), my younger sibling.
은 (eun), topic marking particle. 착해요 (chakhayo), 착해요 (chakhayo) means kind, nice.
So now I'm using 이 (i) here, 이 (i) here because I want to emphasize that there is my brother or my younger sister.
My younger sibling is there, my younger sibling. I want to emphasize my younger sibling.
Now we know that we are all talking about younger sibling. So this is an old information.
So I don't need to emphasize my younger sibling anymore.
So now I focus on 착해요 (chakhayo), 착해요 (chakhayo) because this is what I want to say. Does it make sense?
So here in the first sentence, I'm using my younger sibling because this is the subject that I newly introduced.
This is a new subject. So I'm emphasizing this part.
Now everyone knows that I'm talking about my younger sibling.
So now I'm emphasizing 착해요 (chakhayo) here, 착해요 (chakhayo), 착해요 (chakhayo) means kind, nice because this is the important part that I want to emphasize.
So when you want to talk about a new subject that you haven't talked about it, then you use this, 이 (i), subject marking particle.
And when you talk about some old information that you already know or we already talked about,
or in the context everyone already knows this old information, then we want to focus on the predicate.
So we use this, 은 (eun), 는 (neun), 은 (eun), 는 (neun), topic marking particles.
So please remember these two particles are very similar,
but the main idea is that this subject marking particle wants to emphasize the noun before the subject marking particle.
And if you use the topic marking particle, then the focus of the sentence is the predicate, the other part.
So the nuance is slightly different.
I know even advanced Korean learners make mistakes here.
So please, please don't worry if you are a beginner and if it's difficult,
because this is something that you will learn gradually by learning the language over time.
Here's the last question.
What are the differences between 에 (e) and 에서 (eseo)?
에 (e) and 에서 (eseo), both of them are called location marking particles.
So in English, it means like in or at.
As in, I study Korean in the library, I'm waiting for you at the station.
So in, at, you put this preposition before a noun, right?
At the station or in the library.
In Korean, we put these particles after a noun, after the place noun.
So 에 (e) and 에서 (eseo).
So when can I use 에 (e) and when can I use 에서 (eseo)?
So 에 (e) is relatively simple, I would say,
because there are not so many verbs that you can use with 에 (e).
Here are some verbs that you can use with 에 (e).
For example, 있다 (itda) or 없다 (eopda).
It means there is or there is not.
Or 있다 (itda) can also means to have, to exist.
There are many meanings.
And 없다 (eopda) can means, well, to not exist, to not have, there isn't.
So 있다 (itda) and 없다 (eopda), 있다 (itda) and 없다 (eopda).
Or 살다 (salda) meaning to live.
I live in Korea, I live in the States.
살다 (salda), 살다 (salda).
And 많다 (manhda), 적다 (jeokda).
These are adjectives, right?
많다 (manhda), a lot.
적다 (jeokda), a few.
Now we have this kind of verbs.
눕다 (nupda), to lie down.
서다 (seoda), to stand up.
And 안다 (anda), to sit down.
Or 놓다 (nota), to put.
And 두다 (duda), it means the same.
놓다 (nota) and 두다 (duda), it means to put.
So there are some words.
And with these words, you can use 에 (e), 에 (e), 에 (e), particle, 에 (e).
For example, how can I say I live in Korea?
What is the place word here?
It's Korea, right?
Korean is 한국 (Han-guk).
So 한국에 살아요 (Han-guk-e salayo).
한국 (Han-guk), name of a country.
에 (e), 에 (e), 에 (e), particle, location mark and particle.
살아요 (salayo), live, so I live in Korea is 한국에 살아요 (Han-guk-e salayo).
So with these verbs, yes, you use 에 (e) when you want to use the place.
한국에 살아요 (Han-guk-e salayo).
And 에서 (eseo), 에서 (eseo).
You use 에서 (eseo) more commonly because most of verbs use 에서 (eseo).
For example, I study in the library.
Or I drink coffee at the cafe.
Or I'm talking with my friends in a restaurant.
So we use 에서 (eseo), 에서 (eseo).
So 에서 (eseo) is often called is dynamic location marking particle.
Why is it dynamic?
Because when you do some action, we use this 에서 (eseo).
Some action is happening.
Something is happening like studying, running, or even sleeping or eating, drinking.
Most of verbs use 에서 (eseo), 에서 (eseo).
에 (e), we call this as static location marking particle.
Static, why?
짜자잔 (jjajajjan), do you see some common things between these verbs and adjectives?
Basically, these are using some space.
있다 (itda).
It's not exactly like you're doing some action.
It's just talk about the existence, right?
For example, 김치가 있다 (kimchiga itda).
There is kimchi.
김치가 있다 (kimchiga itda), 없다 (eopda) means not exist.
So it just talk about the existence.
살다 (salda), it's just about the status of living.
많다 (manhda), 적다 (jeokda), there are many people on the street.
So it's not so dynamic.
It's just static verbs or static adjectives.
So it's not so dynamic.
It's just static verbs or static adjectives.
눕다, 서다, 안다, 놓다, 두다 (nupda, seoda, anda, nota, duda).
So lie down, stand up, sit down, or put, 두다 (duda).
So when you use these verbs, basically these use some space, space. That's it.
So when you use some space like this, we use 에 (e), the static location marking particle.
But if you just use normal verbs, you use 에서 (eseo), 에서 (eseo).
So I think now you can kind of imagine the difference between these verbs.
에 (e), very static. It's just using the space, space.
And 에서 (eseo), well, it's more like dynamic, it's active verb.
So please remember the differences.
And if you come across a new verb and you don't know which one to use,
I would say 99% or 98%, you'll be using 에서 (eseo), 에서 (eseo), 에서 (eseo).
에 (e) is very limited.
So 에서 (eseo) is definitely more commonly used.
에 (e) versus 에서 (eseo).
I hope this is clear. That's it for this lesson. Today I answered three questions about similar Korean particles. Thanks for watching. I'm Keijin, and I'll see you on KoreanClass101.com. 다음 시간에 봐요 (Daeum sigan-e bwayo).That's it for this lesson.
Today I answered three questions about similar Korean particles. Thanks for watching. I'm Keijin, and I'll see you on KoreanClass101.com. 다음 시간에 봐요 (Daeum sigan-e bwayo).